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- Also known as the Brothers of the Common life, a kind of boarding school for reform-minded laity.
- They practiced a lay religious life of prayer and study without surrendering the world.
The Protestant Reformation
- Broke out first in the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland.
- After just a short time, many people adopted a simplified religious practice.
- A more "purified" religion.
Peasants Revolt in 1524-1525
- Peasants started to revolt, invoking Luther's name. Luther then condemned them as "un-christian" and urged the princes to crush the revolt mercilessly.
- By the time it had been suppressed 70,000-100,000 peasants had died.
Diet of Worms
- Luther presented his views to Charles V.
- He was ordered to recant and Luther said to do so, would be against the scripture.
The Peace of Augsburg
- After realizing the Reformation was too entrenched to be ended by brute force, they tried to make peace.
- This decleration made the division of Christendom permanent.
- Cuius regio, eius religio.
- Ruler of a land would determine that region's religion.
The Act of Supremacy
- Declared Henry "the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England."
- When Thomas more and John Fisher refused to recognize this, Henry VIII had them executed.
The Council of Trent
- Emperor Charles V forced Pope Paul III to call a general council to the church to ressert church doctrine.
- Met in the imperial city of Trent.
- Made up of three sessions, spread over eighteen years, with interuptions due to war, plague, and imperial and papal politics.
- Parish life revived under a devout and better clergy.
- Organized by Ignatius of Loyola in 1530s, church recognized them in 1540.
- Intended to teach good Catholics to deny themselves and submit to church.
Miguel de Cervantes
- Generally acknowledged as Spain's greatest writer.
- He educated himself by wide reading in popular literature and immersion in the "school of life."
- When he was younger he worked in Rome for a Spanish Cardinal.
- He started to write Don Quixote in prison.
- He was Henry VIII's son and successor, he was only ten years old.
- He reigned under rregencies of Edward Seymour, who then became duke of Somerset.
- The new king and Somerset corresponded directly with John Calvin. During this time, England enacted Protestant Reformation.
- He died in his early teens.
- By 1527, Catherine and this king had produced only one surviving child, a daughter, Mary.
- He started to believe god had cursed him to not have a son.
- He finally had a son with Jane Seymour, who then died after giving birth.
- He married a total of 6 wives.
- Justification by Faith Alone
- He became a dedicated monk, he made this decision after a lightning storm threatened his life, and he survived.
- He hated the "righteousness of God" because it demanded impossible perfection.
- He attacked the selling of indulgences and started the Protesetant Reformation.
He was the namesake of Calvinism.
Emperor Charles V
- Emperor of HRE and the King of Spain.
- He was part of the Habsburg imperial rule.
- Greatest playwright in the English language.
- He was an actor, playwright, and part owner of a theater.