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2012-11-25 23:59:06

Anatomy, Pathology, Positioning
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  1. What is a blow out fracture?
    Fracture of the floro of the orbit caused by an object striking the eyes striaght on. 

    Inferior rectus muscle is forced through the fracture into the maxillary sinus causing entrapment and diplopia.
  2. What is a Tripod Fracture?
    Fracture where the zygoma breaks into three places. The zygomatic process, maxilary process and the arch.
  3. What is the Lefort fracture?
    severe bilateral horizontal fracture of the maxillae.
  4. What is a contrecoup fracture?
    injury/fracture caused by an impact otthe opposite sided for example, a blow to one side of the mandible reuslts in a fracutre on the opposite side.
  5. What is foreign body of the eye?
    Refers to metal or otehr tpyes of fragmentsi nt he eye.
  6. What are neoplasms?
    Describes a new and anbormal growth that may occur in the skeletal structures of the face.
  7. What is osteomyelitis? 
    Localized infection of bone/bone marrow. The infection may be caused by bacteria from a penetrating trauma or postoperative or fracutre complications/
  8. What is Sinusitis?
    Infection of the sinus mucosa that may be acute or chronic. Patient complaisn of headache, pain, swelling over the affected sinuses, and low grade fever.
  9. What is secondary osteomyelitis?
    An infection of the bone and marrow secondary to sinusitis, reuslts in erosion fo the bony margins and marrow secondary to sinusitis, result in erosion of the bony margins of the sinus.
  10. What is the TMJ syndrome?
    Term that is used to describe a set of symptoms whcih may include pain and clicking that indicate dysfunction of the TMJ. This condition amy be caused by maloocclusion, stress, muscle spasm, or inflammation.
  11. What shape is each orbit?
  12. What part of the orbits is the base?
    The rim of the orbit, which corresponds to the outer circular portion of the cone.
  13. What is the posterior portion of the cone called?
    Apex which corresponds to the optic foramen ( where the optic nerve passes )
  14. With the OML adjusted parallel to the floor ( frontal position ) each orbit would project at what angle?
    30 degrees superiorly towards the midsagital plane at an angle of 37 degrees.
  15. What is necessary to raidograph the optic foramen?
    Necessary to both extend the patients chin 30 degrees and rotate hte head 37 degrees.
  16. What is the bony composition of orbits?
    • Composed of SEVEN bones.
    • Circumference or circular base of each orbit is composed of THREE: Frontal bone, maxilla and zygoma.

    Posterior orbit: Sphenoid, EThmoid, palatine and lacrrimal bone where sphenoid and ehtmoid makes up most of the posterior orbit and Palatine contribtes to the most innermost posterior portion of the floor of each orbit.
  17. How many holes do each orbit contain?
    • Three holoes in the posteiror portion:
    • - Optic Foramen ( mall hole in sphenoid located at the apex of the cone for optic nerve.
    • - Superior Orbital Fissure: Clef or opening between greater and lesser wings of sphenoid ( CN III to VI ) for controlling the movement of the ye
    • - Inferior oribtal fissure: located between the maxilla, zygomatic bone and greater wing of the sphenoid for CN V which permits entry of sensory innervation for the cheek, nose, upper lip, and teeth.
  18. What sererates the super orbital fissure from the optic canal?
    Sphenoid Strut.
  19. What makes up the orbit?
    • - Frontal
    • - Sphenoid
    • - Small portion of platine bone
    • - Zygomatic Bone
    • - Maxillary
    • - Ethmoid bone
    • - Lacrimal Bone
  20. What are the openings and structures of the left orbit?
    • - Optic Foramen
    • - Sphenoid STrut
    • - SUperior ORbital FIssure
    • - Inferior ORbital Fissure