AP Euro Ch. 12 IDs

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  1. The French Wars of Religion
    • 1562-1598
    • After the capture of the French King Francis I, the first round of Protestant persecution started. 
    • The war was broken up into 3 parts. 
    • Henry of Navarre became king and ended the war with the Edict of Nantes.
  2. The Dutch Revolts
    • When Philip attempted to impose his will within the Netherlands and on England and France, he learned the lessons of deafeat. 
    • The resistance of the Netherlands especially proved the undoing of Spanish dreams of world empire. 
    • Philip deported the Netherlands for Spain, never again to return.
  3. The Thirty Years' War
    • 1618-1648
    • Religious differences and Political differences had long set Catholics against Protestants and Calvinists against Lutherans. 
    • The war was broken up into 4 parts. 
    • The Bohemian period, Danish period, Swedish period, and the Swedish-French period. 
    • The Treaty of Westphalia ended all hostilities in the HRE. 
  4. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    • August 24, 1572
    • On this day, Coligny and 3,000 fellow Hugenots were murdered in Paris. 
    • In Protestant eyes, it became an international struggle for sheer survival against an adversery whose cruelty justified any means of resistance. 
  5. Defenestration of Prague
    • May 1618
    • During the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years' War. 
    • The protestant nobility responded to Ferdinand's act in May 1618 by throwing his regents out the window of the royal palace. 
  6. The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    • With the execution of Mary, the Queen of Scots, the Spanish had an excuse to invade England. 
    • One-third of the Spanish fleet never returned to Spain after they fought with England. 
    • News of their defeat gave heart to Protestant resistance everywhere. 
  7. Mary, Queen of Scots
    • She lived in France since the time she was six years old. 
    • She was a very devote Catholic, whereas Scotalnd was Protestant. 
    • After being abdicated, she went to Elizabeth I asking for help and was then put on house arrest for 19 years. 
    • She was then executed. 
  8. Elizabeth I
    • The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. 
    • She had remarkable and enduring successes in both domestic and foreign policy. 
    • She was a politique. 
    • She asserted "supreme governor" and her Act of Supremacy. Thirty-Nine Articles
  9. Mary I
    • In 1554, she entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Philip of Spain, a symbol of militiant Catholocism to English Protestants. 
    • Elizabeth I was her half sister, who she hated. 
    • "Marian Exiles"
    • "Bloody"
  10. Philip II
    • He entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Mary I.
    • New world riches, increased population, efficient bureaucracy and military, supremacy in the Mediterranean, revolt in Netherlands, etc.
  11. Henry IV
    • Henry of Navarre
    • He was a Bourbon Hugenot
    • The French people viewed his right to hereditary succession more seriously than his Protestantism. 
    • He came to the throne as a politique
    • On July 25, 1593, he publicly abandoned Protestant faith and embraced Catholocism saying "Paris is worth a Mass."
    • Proclaimed the Edict of Nantes, and was executed. 
  12. Catherine de Medici
    • Queen Mother
    • Regent for her minor son Charles IX. 
    • Her first concern was always to preserve the monarchy, sought allies among the Protestants. 
    • Issued the January Edict, which granted Protestants freedom to worship publicly outside towns. 
    • She was also involved with the massacre at Vassy. 
  13. Edict of Nantes
    • April 13, 1598
    • Proclaimed a formal religious settlement. 
    • Proclaimed by Henry IV
    • Assured the Hugenots of at least qualified religious freedoms. 
  14. The Treaty of Westphalia
    • Ended all hostilities within the HRE. 
    • Written in French instead of Latin, henceforth to become the international diplomatic language. 
  15. The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
    • This ended the third war, the crown, acknowledging the power of the Protestant nobility, granted the Hugenots religious freedoms within their territories and the right to fortify their cities. 
    • After this, the crown tilted manifestly toward the Bourbon faction and the Hugenots, and Coligny bacame Charles IX's most trusted advisor. 
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AP Euro Ch. 12 IDs

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