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The French Wars of Religion
- After the capture of the French King Francis I, the first round of Protestant persecution started.
- The war was broken up into 3 parts.
- Henry of Navarre became king and ended the war with the Edict of Nantes.
The Dutch Revolts
- When Philip attempted to impose his will within the Netherlands and on England and France, he learned the lessons of deafeat.
- The resistance of the Netherlands especially proved the undoing of Spanish dreams of world empire.
- Philip deported the Netherlands for Spain, never again to return.
The Thirty Years' War
- Religious differences and Political differences had long set Catholics against Protestants and Calvinists against Lutherans.
- The war was broken up into 4 parts.
- The Bohemian period, Danish period, Swedish period, and the Swedish-French period.
- The Treaty of Westphalia ended all hostilities in the HRE.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
- August 24, 1572
- On this day, Coligny and 3,000 fellow Hugenots were murdered in Paris.
- In Protestant eyes, it became an international struggle for sheer survival against an adversery whose cruelty justified any means of resistance.
Defenestration of Prague
- May 1618
- During the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years' War.
- The protestant nobility responded to Ferdinand's act in May 1618 by throwing his regents out the window of the royal palace.
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
- With the execution of Mary, the Queen of Scots, the Spanish had an excuse to invade England.
- One-third of the Spanish fleet never returned to Spain after they fought with England.
- News of their defeat gave heart to Protestant resistance everywhere.
Mary, Queen of Scots
- She lived in France since the time she was six years old.
- She was a very devote Catholic, whereas Scotalnd was Protestant.
- After being abdicated, she went to Elizabeth I asking for help and was then put on house arrest for 19 years.
- She was then executed.
- The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
- She had remarkable and enduring successes in both domestic and foreign policy.
- She was a politique.
- She asserted "supreme governor" and her Act of Supremacy. Thirty-Nine Articles
- In 1554, she entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Philip of Spain, a symbol of militiant Catholocism to English Protestants.
- Elizabeth I was her half sister, who she hated.
- "Marian Exiles"
- He entered a highly unpopular political marriage with Mary I.
- New world riches, increased population, efficient bureaucracy and military, supremacy in the Mediterranean, revolt in Netherlands, etc.
- Henry of Navarre
- He was a Bourbon Hugenot
- The French people viewed his right to hereditary succession more seriously than his Protestantism.
- He came to the throne as a politique
- On July 25, 1593, he publicly abandoned Protestant faith and embraced Catholocism saying "Paris is worth a Mass."
- Proclaimed the Edict of Nantes, and was executed.
Catherine de Medici
- Queen Mother
- Regent for her minor son Charles IX.
- Her first concern was always to preserve the monarchy, sought allies among the Protestants.
- Issued the January Edict, which granted Protestants freedom to worship publicly outside towns.
- She was also involved with the massacre at Vassy.
Edict of Nantes
- April 13, 1598
- Proclaimed a formal religious settlement.
- Proclaimed by Henry IV
- Assured the Hugenots of at least qualified religious freedoms.
The Treaty of Westphalia
- Ended all hostilities within the HRE.
- Written in French instead of Latin, henceforth to become the international diplomatic language.
The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
- This ended the third war, the crown, acknowledging the power of the Protestant nobility, granted the Hugenots religious freedoms within their territories and the right to fortify their cities.
- After this, the crown tilted manifestly toward the Bourbon faction and the Hugenots, and Coligny bacame Charles IX's most trusted advisor.