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The Habsburg Empire
- Austria after 1648
- After 1648, this family retained a firm hold on the title of the Holy Roman Emperor, but the power of the emperor depended less on the force of arms.
- While establishing their new dominance among the German States, this family also began to consolidate their power and influence within their hereditary possessions outside the HRE.
The Dutch Golden Age
- Netherlands 16th & 17th centuries
- Dutch deeply distrusted monarchy and the ambitions of the House of Orange. They were very tolerant towards regions.
- They also had a very posperous economy.
- Economy built on high urban consolidation, transformed agriculture, extensive trade, and finance, and an overseas commercial empire.
The English Civil War
- Charle's opponents argued that he could not be trusted with an army to suppress the rebellion in Scotland.
- The King's supporters were the cavaliers and the Parliamentary opposition were the roundheads.
- Parliament came out with the victory after the alliance with Scotland, and the help of Oliver Cromwell.
The Glorius Revolution
- 1689 England
- English had hoped that Mary would succeed James.
- James wife then had a son. He was a Catholic heir to the throne.
- Parliament invited William to invade England to preserve its "traditional liberties."
- William of Orange arrived with his army in November 1688 and had popular support.
- William and Mary were proclaimed the new monarchs.
War of Spanish Succession
- (1701-1714) Western Europe
- France for the first time in Louis's reign went to war with inadequate finances, a poorly equipped army, and mediocre generals.
- After 1709 the war became a bloody stalemate.
- France made peace with England in July 1713, and with Holland in 1714.
- Louis recognized the right of the House of Hanover.
Peter the Great
- Ascended the fragile Russian throne as co-ruler with his half-brother.
- After his sister was named regent she was overthrown in 1689.
- From that date onward, he ruled personally, although in theory he shared the crown until his brother Ivan died.
- He brutally suppressed the revolt with private tortures and executions.
- He also developed a navy.
- He was over the Parliament army.
- From 1649-1660, England became officially a Puritan Republic, although he dominated it.
- His army brutally conquered Scotland and Ireland.
- He proved to be no politician.
- He disbanded parliament and became "Lord Protector"
- When he died in 1658, English were ready to restore Anglican Church and monarchy.
- Cardinal Mazarin was his chief minister.
- He would concentrate unprecedented authority in the monarchy, but he would be more subtle than his predecessors.
- He built in versailles to get away from Paris with government.
- He was king by "Devine Right"
- He had the longest ruling time.
Cardinal Armand Richeliu
- He was under Louis XIII.
- Both him and Mazarin attempted to impose direct royal administration on France.
- He also circumscribed many of the political priveleges.
- He trained Mazarin to be chief minister for King Louis XIV.
Sir Robert Walpole
- He was the first prime minister of England. He took over the helm of governement.
- He established peace and promoted status quo at home.
- He expanded their national trade, had a lot of royal support, also expanded the British military, and encouraged a lot of people's freedoms.
- Only five years old when he came to power.
- His uncle, the Duke of Orleans, became regent and remained so until his death in 1720.
- Himself was an ineffective ruler, and during his reign, the monarchy encountered numerous challenges from the French aristocracy.
- (r.1740- 1780)
- Part of the Habsburg family line.
- After the death of her father many people saw her as the rightful heir.
- He father left her with an empty treasury and a weak army, and she was invaded by Frederick II of Prussia, and had to fight for inheritance.
- Unable to gain adequate funds for Spain's war and resorted to extra-parliamentary measures. They would grant funds only if he recognized the Petition of Right. He agreed and then dissolved Parliament.
- "short parliament"
- "long parliament"
- He was executed in 1649 by the hands of the people.
- He developed other sources of income, largely by levying new custom duties known as impositions.
- Religious problems also festered under him.
- His court became a ccenter of scandal and corruption.
- His unsuccessful attempt to relax penal laws towards Catholics further increased suspicions.
William III of Orange
- Stadtholder of Holland
- When confronted with major military challenges, the Dutch would permit him to assume dominant leadership.
- He took the English throne along with his wife Mary after the invitation of Protestant English aristocrats.
The Puritan Republic
- This became official, although Cromwell dominated it.
- Parliament abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the Anglican Church.
- They got rid of a lot of social laws, closed theaters, bars, etc. and they took away a lot of major holidays.
- Many of parliament members were religiously divided, and eventually became "pure" after the execution of Charles I on Jauary 30, 1649, as a public criminal.
The Mississippi Bubble
- With the permission of the regen, he established a bank in Paris that issued paper money.
- Law organized a monopoly, called the Mississippi Company.
- In 1719, the price of the stock rose handsomely. People wanted to redeem their paper money for gold and they didn't have enough gold in their stocks to supply people's demands.
- Prussia late 17th & early 18th centuries
- Ruled Brandenburg since 1417.
- They were second in size to the Habsburgs.
- They did not possess a crown.
- The family acquired many territories through inheritance.
- 1711-1740 Austria & Prussia
- This instrument provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Habsbrg dynasty through charles VI's daughter, maraia Theresa.
The Romanov Dynasty
- An assembly of nobles elected a tsar named Michael.
- This began the dynasty that ruled Russia until 1917.
- They brought stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to Russia.