AP Euro Chapter 13 IDs

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  1. The Habsburg Empire
    • Austria after 1648
    • After 1648, this family retained a firm hold on the title of the Holy Roman Emperor, but the power of the emperor depended less on the force of arms. 
    • While establishing their new dominance among the German States, this family also began to consolidate their power and influence within their hereditary possessions outside the HRE.
  2. The Dutch Golden Age
    • Netherlands 16th & 17th centuries
    • Dutch deeply distrusted monarchy and the ambitions of the House of Orange. They were very tolerant towards regions. 
    • They also had a very posperous economy. 
    • Economy built on high urban consolidation, transformed agriculture, extensive trade, and finance, and an overseas commercial empire.
  3. The English Civil War
    • (1642-1646)
    • Charle's opponents argued that he could not be trusted with an army to suppress the rebellion in Scotland. 
    • The King's supporters were the cavaliers and the Parliamentary opposition were the roundheads. 
    • Parliament came out with the victory after the alliance with Scotland, and the help of Oliver Cromwell.
  4. The Glorius Revolution
    • 1689 England
    • English had hoped that Mary would succeed James. 
    • James wife then had a son. He was a Catholic heir to the throne. 
    • Parliament invited William to invade England to preserve its "traditional liberties." 
    • William of Orange arrived with his army in November 1688 and had popular support. 
    • William and Mary were proclaimed the new monarchs.
  5. War of Spanish Succession
    • (1701-1714) Western Europe
    • France for the first time in Louis's reign went to war with inadequate finances, a poorly equipped army, and mediocre generals. 
    • After 1709 the war became a bloody stalemate. 
    • France made peace with England in July 1713, and with Holland in 1714. 
    • Louis recognized the right of the House of Hanover.
  6. Peter the Great
    • (r.1682-1725)
    • Ascended the fragile Russian throne as co-ruler with his half-brother. 
    • After his sister was named regent she was overthrown in 1689.
    • From that date onward, he ruled personally, although in theory he shared the crown until his brother Ivan died.
    • He brutally suppressed the revolt with private tortures and executions. 
    • He also developed a navy.
  7. Oliver Cromwell
    • (1599-1658)
    • He was over the Parliament army. 
    • From 1649-1660, England became officially a Puritan Republic, although he dominated it. 
    • His army brutally conquered Scotland and Ireland. 
    • He proved to be no politician. 
    • He disbanded parliament and became "Lord Protector" 
    • When he died in 1658, English were ready to restore Anglican Church and monarchy.
  8. Louis XIV
    • (r.1643-1715)
    • Cardinal Mazarin was his chief minister.
    • He would concentrate unprecedented authority in the monarchy, but he would be more subtle than his predecessors.
    • He built in versailles to get away from Paris with government.
    • He was king by "Devine Right"
    • He had the longest ruling time.
  9. Cardinal Armand Richeliu
    • (1585-1642)
    • He was under Louis XIII. 
    • Both him and Mazarin attempted to impose direct royal administration on France. 
    • He also circumscribed many of the political priveleges. 
    • He trained Mazarin to be chief minister for King Louis XIV.
  10. Sir Robert Walpole
    • (1676-1745)
    • He was the first prime minister of England. He took over the helm of governement. 
    • He established peace and promoted status quo at home. 
    • He expanded their national trade, had a lot of royal support, also expanded the British military, and encouraged a lot of people's freedoms.
  11. Louis XV
    • (r.1715-1774)
    • Only five years old when he came to power. 
    • His uncle, the Duke of Orleans, became regent and remained so until his death in 1720. 
    • Himself was an ineffective ruler, and during his reign, the monarchy encountered numerous challenges from the French aristocracy.
  12. Maria Theresa
    • (r.1740- 1780)
    • Part of the Habsburg family line. 
    • After the death of her father many people saw her as the rightful heir. 
    • He father left her with an empty treasury and a weak army, and she was invaded by Frederick II of Prussia, and had to fight for inheritance.
  13. Charles I
    • (r.1625-1649)
    • Unable to gain adequate funds for Spain's war and resorted to extra-parliamentary measures. They would grant funds only if he recognized the Petition of Right. He agreed and then dissolved Parliament. 
    • "short parliament"
    • "long parliament"
    • He was executed in 1649 by the hands of the people.
  14. James I
    • (r.1603-1625)
    • He developed other sources of income, largely by levying new custom duties known as impositions. 
    • Religious problems also festered under him. 
    • His court became a ccenter of scandal and corruption. 
    • His unsuccessful attempt to relax penal laws towards Catholics further increased suspicions.
  15. William III of Orange
    • (1650-1702)
    • Stadtholder of Holland
    • When confronted with major military challenges, the Dutch would permit him to assume dominant leadership. 
    • He took the English throne along with his wife Mary after the invitation of Protestant English aristocrats.
  16. The Puritan Republic
    • 1649-1660
    • This became official, although Cromwell dominated it. 
    • Parliament abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the Anglican Church. 
    • They got rid of a lot of social laws, closed theaters, bars, etc. and they took away a lot of major holidays. 
    • Many of parliament members were religiously divided, and eventually became "pure" after the execution of Charles I on Jauary 30, 1649, as a public criminal.
  17. The Mississippi Bubble
    • 1719?
    • With the permission of the regen, he established a bank in Paris that issued paper money. 
    • Law organized a monopoly, called the Mississippi Company. 
    • In 1719, the price of the stock rose handsomely. People wanted to redeem their paper money for gold and they didn't have enough gold in their stocks to supply people's demands.
  18. Hohenzollern Dynasty
    • Prussia late 17th & early 18th centuries
    • Ruled Brandenburg since 1417. 
    • They were second in size to the Habsburgs. 
    • They did not possess a crown. 
    • The family acquired many territories through inheritance.
  19. Pragmatic Sanction
    • 1711-1740 Austria & Prussia
    • This instrument provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Habsbrg dynasty through charles VI's daughter, maraia Theresa.
  20. The Romanov Dynasty
    • 1613-1917
    • An assembly of nobles elected a tsar named Michael. 
    • This began the dynasty that ruled Russia until 1917. 
    • They brought stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to Russia.
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AP Euro Chapter 13 IDs
2013-02-07 05:19:52
AP Euro History

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