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What are the functions of blood?
- distribute nutrients, O2, and hormones to each body cell
- take metabolic waste to kidneys for excretion
- transport cells that defend peripheral tissues against infection
What are platelets?
small membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm
What is whole blood?
- a mixture of plasma and formed elements
- it is sticky, cohesive, and resistant to flow
What are the plasma components of whole blood?
- organic waste
What are the formed elements?
What is the function of immunoglobins?
attack foreign proteins and pathogens
What is the function of transport globulins?
bind small ions, hormones, and compounds that are either insoluble or that might be filtered out by the kidneys
What is fibrinogen? What is its backup?
- the basic framework for blood clots
What is the hematocrit value?
it indicates the percentage of whole blood contributed by whole elements
What is the importance of a big surface area on RBCs/
it permits rapid diffusion between RBC cytoplasm and surrounding plasma
What are rouleaux?
stacks of RBCs, they dissociate repeatedly without affecting the cells involved
What are the characterisitics of RBCs?
- biconcave disc
- no nucleus
- no mitochondria
- no ribosomes
- red because of hemoglobin
What is the main function of RBCs?
- transport oxygen from lungs to tissues
- transport carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
What are the characterisitcs of neutrophils?
- round cell
- nucleus looks like beads
- cytoplasm ahs big pale inclusions
What are the functions of neutrophils?
phagocytic to engulf pathogens in tissue
What is the life expectancy of neutrophils?
minutes to days depending on activity
What are the characteristics eosinophils?
- round cell
- 2 lobed nucleus
- large granules in cytoplasm
What are the functions of eosinophils?
- attack anything labled with antibodies
- fight v parasitic infection
- suppress inflammation
What are the characterisitics of basophils?
- round cell
- nucleus cannot be seen because of dense granules in cytoplam
What is the function of basophils?
enter damage tissue and release histamine
What are the characterisitics of monocytes?
- large kidney bean shaped nucleus
- abundant pale cytoplasm
What are the functions of monocytes?
- enter tissues to become free macrophages
- engulf pathogens or debris
What are the characterisitics of lymphocytes?
- a little bigger than RBCs
- round nucleus
- little cytoplasm
What are the functions of lymphocytes?
- provides defense v. specific pathogens or toxins
- T cells and B cells
How do T cells attack pathogens? B cells?
- form plasmocytes that secrete antibodies
What are the characteristics of platelets?
- cytoplasmic fragments
- with enzymes and proenzymes
- no nucleus
What is the function of platelets?
- clump together and stick to vessel wall
- activate intrinsic pathway of coagulation phase
What is the function of hemoglobin?
responsible for cell's ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is the color difference between oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated?
- oxygenated = bright red (arterial)
- deoxygenated = deep red (venous)
What are granulocytes?
leukocytes with large granular inclusions in their cytoplasm
What are agranulocytes?
lekocytes without visible granules
What is leukopenia?
inadequate number of leokocytes
What is leokocytosis?
excessive numbers of leokuocytes
What is a differential count?
the number of each type of cell in a sample of 100 WBCs
What is diapedesis?
leukocytes can cross the endothelial lining of a capillary by squeezing between endothelial cells when there is an injury
What is chemotaxis?
WBCs are attracted to chemical signs of inflammation or infection in interstitial fluids
What are the granular leukocytes that are phagocytic cells?
neutrophils and eosinophils
Which granular leukocyte is very mobile and the 1st on site of injury?
What happens after a neutrophil engulfs debris or pathogens?
it dies and releases chemicals that attract other neutrophils to the site
Which granular leukocyte grows in number during allergic reactions or parasitic infection? what does it do?
- it releases enzymes that reduce inflammation and control its spread
How do basophils migrate to injuries?
they cross the capillary endothelium to accumulate within damaged tissues where they discharge their granules
Which agranular leokocyte is the largest WBC?
What are monocytes called when they are outside of the bloodstream?
What are monocytes called when they are in the connective tissue?
Which agranular leukocytes arrives on injury site just after neutrophils?
What is special about active macrophages (monocytes)?
they release chemicals to lure in fibroblasts.
Which agranular leukocyte has very little cytoplasm and a big nucleus?
What are the primary vells of the lymphoid system?
What is specific immunity?
the ability of the body to start an attack v pathogens on an individual basis
Wich leukocyte is responsible for specific immunity?
What are the 3 ways that lymphocytes respond in specific immunity?
What are megakaryocytes?
- big cells with big nuclei
- nucleus is dense and lobed or ring shaped
What does the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes contain?
- glogo apparatus
What do megakaryocytes manufacture?
What are the membranes enclosed packets that fall off of a shedding megakaryocyte?
What is thrombocytopenia?
low platelet count or escessive platelet destruction
What is thrombocytosis?
- excessive platelet production
- from response to infection, inflammation, or cancer
What is the process that prevents loss of blood through the walls of damaged vessels?
What are the funtions of platelets?
- transport clotting chemicals
- patch up walls of damaged vessels
- contraction on clot to pull the edges together