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What is hemotology?
medical speciality in blood disorders
What does hemo mean?
What does hyper mean?
What does cephalic mean?
What is macrocephaly?
abnormal largeness of the head
What is microcephaly?
small head more than 2 SD below the average size
What is CSF?
What is hydrocephalus?
- water/CSF putting pressure on the brain
- causes enlarged head
How can CSF pressure be relieved? Why should it be relieved?
- It can relieve pressure sugically with a shunt (tube)
- The shunt drains fluid away from the brain/head
- without the shunt, severe brain damage may happen
what is hypoxia?
- reduction in oxygen
- how much is in body tissues
What is diabetes?
- disorder that impairs the body to use sugar
- carbohydrate metabolism problem
What is type 1 or type 2 diabetes? Which type of glycemic problem is it?
- type 1 and 2 diabetes are hyperglycemic (high sugar not processed by the body's insulin)
- type 1 is diagnosed in early in life...childhood
- type 2 is diagnosed later in life
What is hyperglycimic?
- high sugar and startches are supposed to break down the blood cells
- this is called glucose which is used for making energy
- insulin is what changes the sugar and starches into glucose in our blood cells, but some people's bodies either ignore the insulin in the body or the body doesn't make enough of it.
- That means insulin builds up in the blood and doesn't transfer to blood cells like its supposed to
- Treatment - give insulin shot!
What is hypoglycemia?
- low blood sugar
- give this kid sugar
Immediate Treatment Options:3 or 4 glucose tablets 1 serving of glucose gel—the amount equal to 15 grams of carbohydrate 1/2 cup, or 4 ounces, of any fruit juice 1/2 cup, or 4 ounces, of a regular—not diet—soft drink 1 cup, or 8 ounces, of milk 5 or 6 pieces of hard candy 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey
What is hypocalcemia?
abnormal low levels of calcium in blood
what is anoxia?
deprived of oxygen
What does CBC mean?
complete blood count
what is aspiration?
suctioning fluid or material from the body
what does congenital mean?
happens at birth
what is neonatal?
- neo = new
- period of first 30 days of life
What is contracture?
permanent loss of mobility in the joint
what is diplegia?
- partial paralysis
- mostly lower extremities than upper
what is paraplegia?
- paralysis of legs and lower part of the body
- both motion and sensation are effected
what is monoplegia?
- type of CP
- only 1 limb affected
what is paresis?
partial paralysis or weakness
what is quadriplegia?
paralysis of all 4 limbs
what is quadruplegia?
a type of CP which involves the whole body
what is hemiplegia?
partial paralysis of one side of the body
What is a reflex?
- automatic response to stimulus
What is tonic neck reflex?
- when turning the head causes one arm to straighten and stiff
- and the other other arm to bend and stiffen
what is athetosis?
- random, involuntary movements of the limbs
- usually jerking and writhing
What is clonic?
spasm in which rigidity and relaxation alternate in rapid patterns
What is planter flexion?
pointing the foot downward, prone, lying on the stomach
what is abbuction?
movement of limbs towards the midline of the body
what is prone?
lying on the stomach
What is supine?
lying on the back
What is ante?
- remember the ant's antennae
What is spastic?
- stiff muscles
- difficult to move
- increased muscle tone
What is locomotion?
movement from one place to another
What is laterality?
internal awareness of left and right sides of the body
What is directionality?
ability to decide if things are up/down or, on the left/right
What is spatial orientation?
- understanding space around a person
- in terms of distance, direction, position and form
What is aura?
- the feeling or sensation that sometimes occurs before a seizure (like a hint)
- often its a smell, taste, or feeling
What is a seizure?
- a group of brain cells become overactive attack the brain
- can be in multiple areas in the brain
- causes disharmony in the brain
What is gran mal?
- epileptic seizure
- severe and widespread
- loss of awareness for long time
What is petit mal?
- epileptic seizure
- some dizziness, blackout, staring into space
- some automatic function happens but person doesn't remember it