Embalming II test 1

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Embalming II test 1
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2012-11-26 15:21:30
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Embalming II test 1 TTST 1
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  1. Agonal Period --> Clinical Death --> Brain Death --> Biological Death --> Cellular Death
    Progression of Somatic Death
  2. Death is a series of physical and chemical changes.

    Death starts before the medico-legal time of death.

    Death is a process and not necessarily a specific moment in time.
    ·        
    Death often continues for a very lengthy and protracted period of time.
    ·        
    Death finally arrives at a point of irreversibility; the cessation of all vital life functions.

    (nothing more can be done to restore life)
    DEFINING DEATH IS DIFFICULT AND CONTROVERSIAL
  3. Agonal refers to the process of death or dying.

    It is the period just before somatic death begins.

    Before the body loses the ability to sustain physiological and metabolic activity.
    • AGONAL PERIOD
    • AGONAL STATE
  4. A dying condition, dying, death bound.

    A moribund person is in the process of dying.

    Doctors use this term.
    MORIBUND
  5. The respiratory gurgling caused by a loss of the cough reflex and an accumulation of mucous in  the throat.
    DEATH RATTLE
  6. The semi-convulsive twitches that occurs before death.
    DEATH STRUGGLE
  7. Death of the entire body.

    Death of the organism as a whole.

    The inability to sustain physiologic and metabolic activities
    SOMATIC DEATH
  8. Occurs when spontaneous respiration and heat beat cease.

    It is one phase of somatic death, lasting for 5 to 6 minutes.

    This is the period of time during which life may be restored.
    CLINICAL DEATH
  9. A function of time without oxygen or blood circulation to the brain.

    This is the period of time when organs (not tissue) must be harvested for donation.
    BRAIN DEATH
  10. Is irreversible somatic death

    The cessation of simple body processes

    The organs of the body do not function
    BIOLOGICAL DEATH
  11. The ante-mortem or post-mortem death of cells.
    CELLULAR DEATH
  12. necrobiosis is the physiological death of the cells- followed by their replacement.

    necrobiosis is a good thing and happens every day in a healthy body.

    necrobiosis / bio / there is life in this word.
    ONE FORM OF ANTE-MORTEM CELLULAR DEATH IS NECROBIOSIS
  13. necrosis is the pathological death of a tissue that is still a part of the living organism

    necrosis is a bad thing.

    examples of necrosis include decubitus ulcers (DCU), pressure sores, and gangrene.
    ANOTHER FORM OF ANTE-MORTEM CELLAR DEATH IS NECROSIS.
  14. It is the process during which individual cells die…it may take hours.

    Brain and nervous system                                   5 minutes
    Muscle cells                                                      3 hours
    Cornea cells                                                      6 hours
    Blood cells                                                        6 hours
    POST-MORTEM CELLULAR DEATH  FOLLOWS SOMATIC DEATH
  15. The cooling or lowering of the body temperature just prior to death

    Often seen in elderly patients, metabolism and circulation is slowed
    • TEMPERATURE CHANGES
    • AGONAL ALGOR
  16. An increase in body temperature due to febrile issues

    Caused by  infection, toxemia, or poisoning, this can stimulate microbial growth.
    • TEMPERATURE CHANGES
    • AGONAL FEVER
  17. An increase in the amount of moisture or fluids in the tissues and body cavities.

    Due to disease or agonal capillary expansion.
    • MOISTURE CHANGES
    • AGONAL EDEMA
  18. A decrease in the amount of moisture or fluids in the tissues and body cavities.

    Due to dietary or intestinal problems and febrile issues.
    • MOISTURE CHANGES
    • AGONAL DEHYDRATION
  19. The movement of micro-organisms from one area of the body to another.

    Movement may be caused by:
          natural motility
          circulation of the blood
          gravitation
    • AGONAL
    • BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION
  20. These can be exacerbated by the time between death and embalming.

    The embalming process will retard, interrupt, or reverse these changes.
    POSTMORTEM CHANGES

    PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL
  21. Do not create chemical changes or chemical by-products.

    Brought about by forces of nature:
       gravity
       hypostasis
       livor mortis
       dehydration
       increased blood viscosity
       endogenous invasion of micro-organisms
    POSTMORTEM

    PHYSICAL CHANGES
  22. Things that are caused by factors inside the body.
    INTRINSIC FACTORS
  23. Things that are caused by factors outside the body.
    EXTRINSIC FACTORS
  24. is the settling of blood or other fluids to dependent areas of the body.

    hypo / less than normal         stasis / static; lack of movement
    HYPOSTASIS
  25. Areas where blood movement or gravitation has been inhibited due to contact with the surface upon which the body rests.
    CONTACT PALLOR
  26. A postmortem intravascular discoloration as a result of hypostasis.

    The extent of livor mortis depends upon blood volume and blood viscosity.
    • LIVOR MORTIS
    • CADAVERIC LIVIDITY
    • POSTMORTEM LIVIDITY
  27. The loss of water from body tissues and fluids by surface evaporation (air swipe).

    Covering the body with a sheet may protect against air currents.

    Covering the body in plastic may promote mold and mildew.
    • POSTMORTEM
    • DEHYDRATION
  28. Caused by fluids moving into dependent (lower) areas of the body, tissue can become engorged and distended.
    • POSTMORTEM
    • EDEMA
  29. The ability of cells to draw moisture from the surrounding areas into themselves

    This may case postmortem edema.
    IMBIBITION
  30. Technically not a clot.

    The formed elements of the blood stick together causing poor drainage.

    Poor drainage will cause formaldehyde gray.
    • SLUDGE
    • AGGLUTINATION
  31. Refers to the thickness of the blood (not clotting of the blood).

    Blood cells stick together.  Sludge or  Agglutination.
    INCREASE IN BLOOD VISCOSITY
  32. The colon is the origin of most of the bacteria that cause problems.

    Clostridium Prefringins (historically C. Welchi) causes the most problems for embalmers

    A gas producing anaerobic bacillis, C. Prefringins will cause tissue gas within 1 or 2 hours.
    ENDOGENOUS INVASION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS

    BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION
  33. Postmortem caloricity

    Postmortem stain

    A shift in body ph

    Rigor mortis

    Decomposition
    POSTMORTEM CHEMICAL CHANGES
  34. A rise in body temperature after death.

    The continuation of metabolism after death will create heat.

    The living body uses perspiration, respiration, and blood circulation to regulate temperature

    These processes are not available to the dead human body.
    POSTMORTEM CALORICITY
  35. A reddish extravascular discoloration brought about by hemolysis of blood cells.

    Hemolysis begins 6 to 10 hours after death. Hemolysis releases hemoglobin.

    A single red blood cell contains several million hemoglobin molecules.
    POSTMORTEM STAIN
  36. The normal pH for a living body is about 7.4 on the scale. 
    After death the body becomes acidic, about 6.0 on the scale.  The body remains acidic during rigor mortis.

    After rigor passes and decomposition begins the body becomes alkaline, in the 8.0 or 9.0 range.
    SHIFT IN BODY pH
  37. Relaxation of the muscles immediately after death.
    PRIMARY FLACCIDITY
  38. When rigor passes naturally from the un-embalmed body.
    36-72 hours
    SECONDARY FLACCIDITY
  39. The postmortem stiffening of the muscles by natural processes.

    Rigor results in the muscles inability to re-synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

    Once rigor has passed (or is broken up) it does not reoccur.

     “Rigor when it develops involves all the muscles at the same time and at the same rate.  However becomes most evident in the smaller muscles.”

    Rigor may seem to develop in smaller muscles first; moving to larger muscles last. The eyes, jaw, face, neck…Then the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities.

     This directional occurrence of rigor from face to feet is
    historically known as Nysten’s Law. Named after Pierre Nysten (1744-1817) a French pediatrician.
    RIGOR MORTIS
  40. Flex……Bend…..Rotate…..Extend…..Massage
    Once rigor is broken it does not return.
    TO BREAK RIGOR MORTIS
  41. Minimum temperature                             32 degrees
    Ideal or optimum temperature                  98 to 100 degrees
    Maximum temperature                            120 degrees
    TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR RIGOR MORTIS
  42. Sudden involuntary movement or convulsion brought about by involuntary muscular contractions.

    This may be associated with rigor mortis.
    CADAVERIC SPASM

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