Cell Division & Genetics Lab

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medic11
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185390
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Cell Division & Genetics Lab
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2012-11-26 10:42:09
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BI 253
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Cell Division & Genetics Lab
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  1. Most of the time DNA is found in a thread like form called ____.
    Chromatin
  2. Chromatin is elaborately wound up into coiled structures called ____.
    Chromosomes
  3. Humans have ___ chromosomes in each body cell.
    46
  4. Homologous prs are matched by what means?
    Physical characteristics
  5. Chromosomes that are not concerned with sex determination are called ____.
    Autosomes
  6. Females have a homologous pr of ____ sex chromosomes but males are ___.
    • X
    • XY
  7. Chromosomes from cells that are undergoing mitosis look how?
    Thickly coiled structures
  8. B/f a new nucleus can be made DNA in each chromosome in each chromosome must what?
    Replicate
  9. The place where chromosomes attach is called the ____.
    Centromere
  10. A cell that contains the correct # of homologous prs for its species is said to be ____.
    Diploid
  11. A cell w/only 1 member of each homologous pr is said to be ___.
    Haploid
  12. The union of a haploid egg & a haploid sperm produces a ___ ____.
    Diploid Zygote
  13. Each strand of a double chromosome is called a ____.
    Chromatid
  14. B/c chromatids are identical those that are attached to each other are called ___ ___.
    Sister Chromatids
  15. What are the phases of mitosis?
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  16. In prophase what events take place?
    • Chromosomes condense
    • Spindle begins to develop
    • Nuclear env desintigrates
  17. What are the events of the metaphase?
    • Centrosomes move to opposite ends of cell
    • Chromosomes align on metaphasal plate
  18. During what phase of mitosis do chromatids separate & move towards opposite ends of the spindle?
    Anaphase
  19. What happens during the telophase & cytokinesis?
    Nuclear env reforms & cytoplasms divide
  20. What is overall result of mitosis?
    2 identical cells
  21. A special type of cell division to produce gametes is called ___.
    Meiosis
  22. Each chromosome is a ___ molecule that encodes info & each segment of info is a ___.
    • DNA
    • Gene
  23. How many cells result fr meiosis?
    4
  24. Homologous prs that assoc closely during prophase I are termed ___.
    Tetrad
  25. ___ ___ is the term used to describe homologous chromosomes exchanging pieces of DNA.
    Crossing Over
  26. Crossing over at prophase I is one great source of ___ ___.
    Genetic Variation
  27. What are 3 events during prophase?
    • Chromosomes condense
    • Spindle begins to develop
    • Nuclear env breaks down
  28. What are 2 events of metaphase?
    • Centrosomes move to opposite ends of cell
    • Chromosomes align on metaphase plate
  29. During what phase of mitosis do chromatids separate & move toward opposite ends of the spindle?
    Anaphase
  30. What are the 2 events of telophase & cytokinesis?
    • Nuclear env reforms
    • Cytoplasm divides
  31. What is the overall result of mitosis?
    2 identical cells
  32. Is mitotic division reductional or equational w/respect to chromosome # & why?
    Equational b/c each new cell receives an exact copy of all chromosomes
  33. In what stage of the cell cycle does cell division occur?
    In between the G2 & G1 portions of interphase
  34. Cell division that occurs to produce haploid gamete cells is called ____.
    Meiosis
  35. What 2 events occur during prophase 1?
    • Chromosomes become visible
    • Nuclear env disintegrates
  36. What 2 events occur during metaphase 1?
    • Chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus
    • Align along ctr of cell
  37. What occurs during anaphase 1?
    • Homologous prs separate fr each other
    • Sister chromatids remain attached
  38. What occurs at telophase 1?
    • Homologous prs are at opposite poles
    • Cytoplasm divides forming 2 daughter cells
  39. During prophase 2 a ___ ___ forms again.
    Spindle Apparatus
  40. During metaphase 2 chromosomes do what?
    Line up at ctr of cell
  41. During anaphase 2, sister chromatids do what?
    Move to opposite poles
  42. At telophase 2 & cytokinesis what happens?
    • Division of chromatids is complete
    • Cytoplasm divides to form new daughter cells
  43. What part of genes is responsible for invisible traits such as blood type, ability to carry out metabolic pathways & color vision?
    Alleles
  44. What chemical did we use to determine who had an allele to taste bitter things?
    PTC - phenylthiocarbamide
  45. Where is the "bitter taste gene" located?
    Chromosome #7
  46. Approximately what percentage of ppl can taste PTC?
    75%
  47. What is the name given to a chart that diagrams trait inheritance patterns?
    Pedigree
  48. What shape is used to symbolize females on a pedigree chart?
    Circle
  49. What shape is used to symbolize males on a pedigree chart?
    Square
  50. A black square/circle on a pedigree chart shows what?
    Presence of the cond being studied
  51. A white square/circle on a pedigree chart means what?
    The condition being studied is absent
  52. On a pedigree chart, marriage or mating is shown by a ____ connecting parents.
    Line
  53. On a pedigree chart, children fr a mating are shown by a ___ ___ between the parents.
    Vertical Line
  54. All members fr the same generation on a pedigree chart are shown where on a pedigree chart?
    Along the same horizontal line
  55. The X chromosome is physically ____ in comparison to the Y chromosome.
    Larger
  56. Alleles that are carried by only one chromosome are said to be X or Y ____.
    Linked
  57. Y-linked alleles are found only in ____.
    Males
  58. A disorder characterized by an inability to produce proteins necessary for blood clotting is called ____.
    Hemophilia
  59. What is the name given to a special type of inheritance in which 2 alleles are equally dominant?
    Codominance
  60. When codominance exists, both ___ are expressed independently resulting in a ____ individual that shows both ____ phenotypes.
    • Alleles
    • Heterozygous
    • Homozygous
  61. Sickle-cell anemia is a blood disorder affecting transport of ____ by ____ causing tissues to be ____ of oxygen.
    • Oxygen by hemoglobin
    • Deprived
  62. Heterozygous individuals have sickle-cell trait & are usually healthy but may experience some problems when?
    During intense exercise or under low O₂ conditions
  63. When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, how is a completely normal individual represented?
    HbAHbA
  64. When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, how is an individual that is a carrier of the sickle-cell trait represented?
    HbAHbS
  65. When speaking of sickle-cell phenotypes & genotypes, an individual w/ HbSHbS genotype has what phenotype?
    Full blown sickle-cell anemia
  66. The term used to describe the composition of an organism's alleles for a gene is what?
    Genotype
  67. The termed to describe the "expression of the genotype" or the physical appearance of an organism is ____.
    Phenotype
  68. What is the difference between genotype & phenotype?
    Genotype is the composition of an organisms alleles for a gene where as phenotype is the organism's physical appearance or "expression of the gene"
  69. What disease is caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium?
    Malaria
  70. When a malaria parasite enters the body it does what?
    Travels to liver, reproduces then travels t blood stream where is infects RBCs
  71. What blood abnormality decreases the ability of the malaria parasite to reproduce & why?
    Sickle-cell anemia b/c of the lower O₂ carrying capacity of RBCs
  72. In a pt w/malaria what happens as blood passes thru the spleen?
    Abnormal, sickled shape cells are destroyed along w/malaria parasites
  73. What is the genotype for Type A blood?
    IA IA or IA i
  74. What is the genotype for Type B blood?
    IB IB or IB i
  75. If blood has the genotype IA IB it is Type ___ blood.
    AB
  76. What is the genotype for Type O blood?
    ii
  77. In human blood types, the alleles __ & __ are codominant & ____ over the recessive allele ___.
    • IA & IB
    • Dominant
    • ii
  78. What are we using PTC paper for?
    To help us to determine if we are tasters of bitter things.

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