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2009-11-30 11:33:42
onychology nails chapter 14

nail terminology, all nail disorders and conditions, etc.
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  1. SIX signs of infection

    • pain
    • swelling
    • redness
    • local fever
    • throbbing
    • pus
  2. Onychomycosis (Tinea Unguium)
    • Ringworm
    • E: fungus

    thick black, brown, beige, or white in color, with yellow streaking, deformed shape, possible nail loss.

    DR REFERRAL/no services
  3. Tinea Manus
    • Hand Ringworm
    • E:fungus

    blisters, flakes, ring of pink, very itchy and dry, red in color, very contagious and can spread to nails, feet, etc.

    DR REFERRAL/no services
  4. Tinea Pedis
    • Athlete's Foot/Foot Ringworm
    • E:fungus

    itchy, red blisters, can be single spot, or clusters between the toes

    DR REF/no services
  5. Paronychia (Felon)
    • Inflammation of skin surrounding the nail
    • E:bacterial infection

    signs of infection, healing time of 4 weeks, causes include hangnails, prolonged exposure to water, hair splinters

    DR REF/no services
  6. Onychoptosis
    • shedding of the nails
    • E:disease/injury

    highly sensitive nail bed, if the disease causing the problem is cured, the nail will regrow; may occur on only one or two nails; nail bed should be protected while the nail grows.

    DR REF/no services
  7. Onychia
    • Inflammation of the nail matrix
    • E:bacterial infection, disease related

    signs of infection, depending on severity, nail may not grow back

    DR REF/no services
  8. Onychatrophia
    • Wasting away of the nail
    • E:injury/systemic

    nail atrophy, caused by cancer, nail shrinks and may separate from nail bed; if illness-related, may not improve if matrix is damaged; the nail may improve in 3 to 6 months.

    DR REF/no services
  9. Onycholysis
    • Loosening of nail
    • E:internal disorder, infection or drug treatment; systemic, disease-related

    loosening of the nail plate, starting at the free edge and progressing to the lunula; nail doesn't come off; stays attached at root area; must be diagnosed and treated by physician; do not touch

    DR REF/no services
  10. Nail Disorders
    If no infection present, modified nail services can be safely provided to the client.
  11. Blue Nails
    • Bluish in color
    • E:systemic/injury

    possible causes include poor circulation, low temperature, could be an indicator of the onset of a systemic disease; physician recommendation
  12. Eggshell Nails
    • Thin, soft nails
    • E:Hereditary/Nervous condition

    add strength, thickness and protection by polishing
  13. Corrugations
    • (Horizontal) Ridges across nails
    • E:injury/systemic

    May disappear while growing out

    Lightly buff and apply base coat
  14. Kolionychia
    • Spoon Nails
    • E:Systemic/Illness

    unlikely to correct itself, avoid using pressure

    file carefully and polish to protect
  15. Furrows
    • Vertical Lines
    • E:injury/nutritional deficiencies

    matrix produces cells unevenly, may grow out, or could be permanent

    use ridge filling base coat
  16. Onychogryposis
    • Claw Nails
    • E:systemic

    Increased thickness and curving of the nail, may occur with age or injury to the nail; most often occurs in the big toe; if too difficult to clean, can be removed by a doctor.

    check for all signs of infection before performing services, clean well under free edge, file only/no trimming.
  17. Onychocryptosis
    • Ingrown Nail
    • E:environmental/poor trimming

    Nail grows inward, instead of outward, and could lead to infection if not removed promptly. Refer client to physician to remove effected skin if nail is deeply embedded, or cutting into the skin; caused by tight footwear or toenails that are too deeply filed on the sides.

    thoroughly soften skin, trim nail STRAIGHT across; if infection is present, provide no services and refer to doctor.
  18. Onychauxis (Hypertrophy)
    • Thickening of the nail plate (body) or an abnormal outgrowth of the nail
    • E:injury/systemic

    easily recognizable, likely to disappear

    lightly buff to even out surface as much as you can without disturbing overall nail shape.
  19. Agnails
    • Hangnails
    • Overly dry cuticle

    skin breaks at nail corners, healing time of 2-3 days usually, can recur

    trim, moisturize, avoid pressure or contact with area (no massage)
  20. Bruised Nail (splinter hemorrhages)
    • Dark purple discoloration under nail surface
    • Trauma to nail; environmental; blood that has become trapped under the nail
    • Apply no pressure on nail plate
  21. Leuconychia
    • White spots appearing on nail
    • Injury, heredity, signs of systemic disorders or nutritional deficiency
    • Notify client, perform regular services
  22. Pterygium
    • Living skin that becomes attached to the nail plate either at the eponychium or the hyponychium; disrupts nail growth
    • Severe injury to the eponychium a/o hyponychium; other diseases
    • Perform no services on the effected nail; if severe, refer client to doctor
  23. Onychophagy
    • Nail Biting
    • Nervous habit/stress related
    • Perform nail services weekly until nail grows out fully
  24. Onychorrhexis
    • Split or brittle nails
    • injury; improper filing, or harsh chemical contact; may be a permanent condition

    Soften nails well before trimming; hot oil mani; advise client to regularly moisturize at home and wear rubber gloves when hands are in water
  25. Pigmentation Problems
    Can indicate serious conditions or disease in the nail, or even entire body; some common causes are vitamin deficiencies, bacterial infection, fungal infections, protein deficiencies, kidney or liver disorders or reactions to medication.

    DO NOT IGNORE discolorations; the condition of the hands and nails will often indicate the overall health of the body
  26. Purpose of a nail service
    to improve the appearance of the hands and, in particular, the nails.
  27. The FIVE basic nail shapes

    • OVAL
    • ROUND
    • SQUARE
  28. Nail service implements
    Hand-held instruments you use on a nail service
  29. MSDS
    • Material Safety Data Sheets
    • Must be available for client's referral, as needed