flashcards exam 3.txt

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flashcards exam 3.txt
2012-11-26 12:20:10

Exam 3 week 9
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  1. acidosis
    A positive amount of blood buffer (hemoglobin and bicarbonate) present in the blood.
  2. active transport
    Movement of materials across the cell membrane by means of chemical activity that allows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be possible. (Potter 1177)
  3. aldosterone
    Mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex with action in the renal tubule to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. (Potter 1177)
  4. alkalosis
    A negative amount of blood buffer (hemoglobin and bicarbonate) present in the blood.
  5. allogeneic (homologous) transfusion
    The collection and reinfusion of a donor's blood into a patient (Potter 493)
  6. angiotensin
    "Polypeptide occurring in the blood, causing vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. (Potter 1177-1178)"
  7. anion gap
    "Difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions, determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions. (Potter 1178)"
  8. anions
    Negatively charged electrolytes. (Potter 1178)
  9. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    Hormone that decreases the production of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water by the renal tubules. ADH is secreted by cells of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (Potter 1178)
  10. arterial blood gas (ABG)
    "acid-base balance and oxygenation. Measurement of ABG levels involves understanding six components: pH, PaCO2, PaO2, oxygen saturation, base excess, and HCO3?. (Potter 473)"
  11. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
    a hormone that promotes vasodilation. (Potter 470)
  12. autologous transfusion
    Procedure in which blood is removed from a donor and stored for a variable period before it is returned to the donor's own circulation. (Potter 1178)
  13. buffer
    Substance or group of substances that can absorb or release hydrogen ions to correct an acid-base imbalance.
  14. cations
    Positively charged electrolytes. (Potter 1179)
  15. colloid osmotic pressure
    "Abnormal condition of the kidney caused by the pressure of concentrations of large particles, such as protein molecules, that will pass through a membrane. (Potter 1179)"
  16. colloids
    blood product
  17. concentration gradient
    Gradient that exists across a membrane separating a high concentration of a particular ion from a low concentration of the same ion. (Potter 1180)
  18. crystalloids
    fluid and electrolyte
  19. dehydration
    "Excessive loss of water from the body tissues, accompanied by a disturbance of body electrolytes. (Potter 1181)"
  20. diffusion
    Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. (Potter 1181)
  21. electrolyte
    "Element or compound that, when melted or dissolved in water or other solvent, dissociates into ions and can carry an electrical current. (Potter 1182)"
  22. electronic infusion device (EID)
    A piece of medical equipment that delivers intravenous fluids at a prescribed rate through an intravenous catheter. (Potter 1182)
  23. filtration
    The straining of fluid through a membrane. (Potter 1183)
  24. fluid volume deficit (FVD)
    "A fluid and electrolyte disorder caused by failure of the body's homeostatic mechanisms to regulate the retention and excretion of body fluids. The condition is characterized by decreased output of urine, high specific gravity of urine, output of urine that is greater than the intake of fluid in the body, hemoconcentration, and increased serum levels of sodium. (Potter 1183)"
  25. fluid volume excess (FVE)
    "A fluid and electrolyte disorder characterized by an increase in fluid retention and edema, resulting from failure of the body's homeostatic mechanisms to regulate the retention and excretion of body fluids. (Potter 1183)"
  26. hemolysis
    "Breakdown of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin that may occur after administration of hypotonic intravenous solutions, causing swelling and rupture of erythrocytes. (Potter 1184)"
  27. homeostasis
    "State of relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, maintained naturally by physiological adaptive mechanisms. (Potter 1184)"
  28. hydrostatic pressure
    Pressure caused by a liquid. (Potter 1184)
  29. hypercalcemia
    Greater-than-normal amount of calcium in the blood. (Potter 1184)
  30. hyperchloremia
    "occurs when the serum chloride level rises above normal, which usually occurs when the serum bicarbonate value falls or sodium level rises. (Potter 473)"
  31. hyperkalemia
    "a greater-than-normal amount of potassium in the blood. primary cause is renal failure, because any decrease in renal function diminishes the amount of potassium a kidney can excrete."
  32. hypermagnesemia
    "an increase in serum magnesium levels, is often the result of excess magnesium intake. (Potter 473)"
  33. hypernatremia
    a greater-than-normal concentration of sodium in ECF caused by excess water loss or an overall sodium excess (Potter 473)
  34. hypertonic
    Situation in which one solution has a greater concentration of solute than another solution; therefore the first solution exerts greater osmotic pressure. (Potter 1184)
  35. hypocalcemia
    "a drop in total serum and/or ionized calcium. It results from several illnesses that affect the thyroid or parathyroid glands. Another cause of hypocalcemia is renal insufficiency. When the kidneys cannot excrete sufficient phosphorus, the phosphorus level rises and the calcium level declines. (Potter 473)"
  36. hypochloremia
    occurs when the serum chloride level falls below normal. It is frequently associated with sodium imbalance. Vomiting or excessive nasogastric or fistula drainage results in hypochloremia because of the hydrochloric acid loss. (Potter 473)
  37. hypokalemia
    "one of the most common electrolyte imbalances, produced by an inadequate amount of potassium in the ECF (Potter 473)"
  38. hypomagnesemia
    "a drop in serum magnesium levels, occurs with malnutrition and malabsorption disorders. (Potter 473)"
  39. hyponatremia
    "a lower-than-normal concentration of sodium in the blood (serum), which occurs when there is a net sodium loss or a net water excess (Potter 473)"
  40. hypotonic
    Situation in which one solution has a smaller concentration of solute than another solution; therefore the first solution exerts less osmotic pressure. (Potter 1184)
  41. hypovolemia
    Abnormally low circulating blood volume. (Potter 1184)
  42. infiltration
    Dislodging an intravenous catheter or needle from a vein into the subcutaneous space. (Potter 1185)
  43. infusion pump
    Device that delivers a measured amount of fluid over a period of time. (Potter 1185)
  44. insensible water loss
    Water loss that is continuous and is not perceived by the person. (Potter 1185)
  45. isotonic
    Situation in which two solutions have the same concentration of solute; therefore both solutions exert the same osmotic pressure. (Potter 1185)
  46. metabolic acidosis
    Abnormal condition of high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid caused by either a primary increase in hydrogen ions or a decrease in bicarbonate. (Potter 1186)
  47. metabolic alkalosis
    Abnormal condition characterized by the significant loss of acid from the body or by increased levels of bicarbonate. (Potter 1186)
  48. milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)
    Number of grams of a specific electrolyte dissolved in 1 L of plasma. (Potter 1186)
  49. oncotic pressure
    The total influence of the protein on the osmotic activity of plasma fluid. (Potter 1187)
  50. osmolality
    Concentration or osmotic pressure of a solution expressed in osmoles or milliosmoles per kilogram of water. (Potter 1187)
  51. osmolarity
    Osmotic pressure of a solution expressed in osmoles or milliosmoles per kilogram of the solution. (Potter 1187)
  52. osmoreceptors
    Neurons in the hypothalamus that are sensitive to the fluid concentration in the blood plasma and regulate the secretion of antidiuretic hormone. (Potter 1187)
  53. osmosis
    Movement of a pure solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a lower solute concentration to one with a higher solute concentration. (Potter 1187)
  54. osmotic pressure
    "Drawing power for water, which depends on the number of molecules in the solution. (Potter 1187)"
  55. phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein. (Potter 1188)
  56. renin
    "Proteolytic enzyme, produced by and stored in the juxtaglomerular apparatus that surrounds each arteriole as it enters a glomerulus. The enzyme affects the blood pressure by catalyzing the change of angiotensinogen to angiotensin, a strong repressor. (Potter 1190)"
  57. respiratory acidosis
    "Abnormal condition characterized by increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration, excess carbonic acid, and increased hydrogen ion concentration. (Potter 1190)"
  58. respiratory alkalosis
    Abnormal condition characterized by decreased arterial carbon dioxide concentration and decreased hydrogen ion concentration. (Potter 1190)
  59. sensible water loss
    Loss of fluid from the body through the secretory activity of the sweat glands and the exhalation of humidified air from the lungs. (Potter 1190)
  60. solute
    Substance dissolved in a solution. (Potter 1191)
  61. solution
    "Mixture of one or more substances dissolved in another substance. The molecules of each of the substances disperse homogeneously and do not change chemically. A solution may be a liquid, gas, or solid. (Potter 1191)"
  62. solvent
    Any liquid in which another substance can be dissolved. (Potter 1191)
  63. total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    "IV fluid and electrolyte therapy (crystalloids), and blood product (colloids) administration. (Potter 486)"
  64. transfusion reaction
    Systemic response by the body to the administration of blood incompatible with that of the recipient.
  65. vascular access device (VAD)
    "Catheters, cannulas, or infusion ports designed for long-term, repeated access to the vascular system. (Potter 1192)"
  66. venipuncture
    "Technique in which a vein is punctured transcutaneously by a sharp rigid stylet (e.g., a butterfly needle), a cannula (e.g., an angiocatheter that contains a flexible plastic catheter), or a needle attached to a syringe. (Potter 1192)"

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