Embalming II test 2

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Embalming II test 2
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  1. Proteins (not all protein is liquid, consider the protein in hair and nails)
    Carbohydrates
    Lipids
    THREE MAJOR BIOCHEMICAL’S OF THE BODY
  2. Bacteria that derive their nutrients from dead organic
    matter.
    SAPROPHYTIC BACTERIA
  3. An organelle that exists within a cell, (but separate from the cell).  It contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates.
    LYSOSOME (not lysine)
  4. Self-destruction of the cells.
    AUTOLYSIS
  5. Destruction of the cells by water. 

    The single most important factor in the initiation of decomposition.

    Hydrolysis is the first chemical reaction in the putrefactive process.

       The end product of hydrolysis of proteins are amino acids
       The hydrolytic process greatly increases the preservative demand.
       Heat will speed hydrolysis, cold will slow hydrolysis.
       A mildly acidic pH will promote hydrolysis.
    HYDROLYSIS
  6. indole, skatole, cadaverine, putrescine (they stink).

    A basic nitrogenous organic compound produced by bacterial putrefaction of protein.

    Amines that are considered to be derivatives of ammonia.
            ptoma = greek for corpse.
            skato = greek for dung.
    PTOMAINE’S
  7. The destruction of sugars by hydrolysis.  (No effect on embalming).
    SACCHAROLYSIS
  8. The breakdown of carbohydrates and glucose. (No effect on
    embalming).
    FERMENTATION
  9. The process of soap formation.  As related to decomposition, the conversion of fatty tissues of the body into a soapy, waxy, substance called adipocere or grave wax.
    SAPONIFICATION
  10. Is thought to be composed of fatty acids and appears in bodies that have been dead for an extended period.
    ADIPOCERE (GRAVE WAX)
  11. 1.     Cells
    2.     Tissues
    3.     Organs
    ORDER OF DECOMPOSITION
  12. 1.     Soft tissues
    2.     Firm tissues
    3.     Hard tissues.
    ORDER OF TISSUE DECOMPOSITION
  13. Minimum temperature…..32 degrees F
    Optimum temperature…..98 degrees F
    Maximum temperature…128 degrees F
    TEMPERATURE RANGE FOR DECOMPOSITION
  14. 1.     Carbohydrates
    2.     Soft proteins
    3.     Fats
    4.     Hard proteins
    5.     Bones
    ORDER OF DECOMPOSITION OF THE BODY COMPOUNDS
  15. First – The lining membrane of the trachea and larynx.
        (Except for the brain of an infant and the pregnant uterus.)
    Last – The non-pregnant uterus or large blood vessels in
    the male and female.
    ORDER OF PUTREFACTION OF THE ORGANS
  16. Ammonia, ammonium compounds, hydrogen, hydrogen
    sulfide, mercaptan, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water, methane, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid.
    END PRODUCTS OF DECOMPOSITION
  17. The smell of rotten eggs
    HYDROGEN SULFIDE &  MERCAPTAN
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  19. Increase preservative demand.
    Often associated with renal failure.
    AMMONIA & AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
  20. 1.     (dis)coloration
    2.     odor
    3.     skin slip (desquamation)
    4.     gas formation
    5.     purge
    FIVE CLASSIC SIGNS OF DECOMPOSITION
  21. Post mortem stain (hemolysis).

    Marbling of the superficial veins (arteries are generally opaque, veins are generally transparent)

    Greenish color on the lower right quadrant of the abdomen; caused by hydrogen sulfide (a product of decomposition) and hemoglobin.
    COLOR CHANGES
  22. Generally caused by the decomposition of proteins (proteolysis) which will create amines. ptomaine’s, mercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide.
    ODOR
  23. The outer layers of the skin weaken because the deeper layers of the skin begin to decompose.
    Hydrolysis of collagen and elastin cause superficial skin layers to pull away.
    Blisters may form.
    DESQUAMATION (skin slip)
  24. Gas in the viscera occurs during general decomposition;
    it begins the stomach or intestines (pm flatulence).
    GAS
  25. Gas gangrene caused by clostridium perfringens (am or
    pm).
    TISSUE GAS
  26. Gas and distention of the tissues brought about trauma or surgery. 
    Outside air trapped inside the body (am).
    SUBCUTANEOUS EMPHYSEMA
  27. A cracking sound made by air trapped in the tissues associated with tissue gas and subcutaneous emphysema.
    CREPITATION
  28. Evacuation of gasses, liquids, and semisolids from a
    natural body orifice. 
        Stomach purge
        Lung purge
        Brain purge
        False purge (fluid purge)
    PURGE
  29. A condition in which the manifestations of life are
    feebly maintained
    APPARENT DEATH
  30. The body of a deceased individual including cremated remains
    HUMAN REMAINS
  31. Those elements remaining after cremation of a dead human
    body
    (do not use the word “cremains”; this word has been removed from the ABFSE embalming vocabulary)
    CREMATED REMAINS
  32. A dead human body used for medical purposes including
            Scientific study
            Transplantation
            Anatomical dissection
    CADAVER
  33. Is the study of death

    Thanatos / death… ology/ knowledge of
    THANATOLOGY
  34. The post-mortem examination of the organs and tissues of
    the body, to determine the cause of death
    AUTOPSY
  35. Another word for autopsy (it is more closely associated
    with the post-mortem examination of other species)
    NECROPSY
  36. Decomposition is the ultimate and indisputable sign of death.
            Cessation of circulation
            Cessation of respiration /
            Complete muscular relaxation
    SIGNS OF DEATH
  37. ·        Clouding of the cornea
    ·        Loss of luster of the conjunctiva
    ·        Flattening of the eyeball
    ·        Non responsive pupils
    The cornea is the transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil

    The cornea is the lens that admits light into the interior of the eye

    The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye
    CHANGES IN THE EYE IS A SIGN OF DEATH
  38. Any procedure used to prove a sign of death

    There are expert tests, which are medical tests

    There are inexpert tests, which are essentially historical

     It is not the professional responsibility of the embalmer to administer tests for death.

    Tests for death are done by those in the medical community as established by law and custom
    TESTS FOR DEATH
  39. Stethoscope

    Ophthalmoscope

    Liquid dye test for circulation

    Electronic monitors (eeg & ekg)

    Evoked response
    EXPERT TESTS FOR DEATH
  40. Is a delicate instrument used to detect almost in audible sounds produced in the body.
    STETHOSCOPE
  41. Is an optical instrument with an accompanying light that makes it possible to examine the retina and to explore for blood circulation.
    OPHTHALMOSCOPE
  42. Are not commonly used today, fluorescein dye will turn the whites of the eye green, in a living person.
    LIQUID DYE INJECTIONS
  43. Are perhaps the most reliable expert test for death

    The electrocardiogram (ekg) detects the electrical activity of the heart

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) detects the electrical activity of the brain.
    ELECTRONIC MONITORS
  44. Ligature test

    Ammonia injection

    Checking for a pulse

    Listening for breathing or heart beat
    INEXPERT TESTS FOR DEATH ARE HISTORICAL
  45. Ligate a finger (tightly), if it becomes discolored and swells, then life is present
    LIGATURE TEST
  46. Ammonia is injected hypodermically into the skin

    The skin will show a reddish reaction if the body is alive
    AMMONIA INJECTION
  47. Use the radial artery or the carotid artery to check for a pulse
    CHECKING FOR A PULSE

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