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  1. 1. Takutsi Nakawe
    the Grandmother goddess of Growth and Germination, and the creator of the world. The colors: the black wool is symbolic of black clouds, the white of white clouds, and the red of red clouds of the evening sky.
  2. 2. Takutsi N. was
    • The first to learn to spend and weave.
    • Our Great Grandmother, created the world through spinning thread.
    • With Staff of power she made the rivers. 
    • With spindle she made the world turn.
    • The first people she created she destroyed.
    • She created and destroyed 3 more worlds. Last world drowned. Now in 5th world.
    • Watakame and his female dog survived
  3. 3. Cargo responsibilities are 
    roles of religious responsibility for the family by the dreams of the wise old shamans, the kawiterutsixi
  4. 4. What prevented Gabriela from traveling? 
    Gabriela’s daughter prevented her, and she was completing three cargos.
  5. 5. Why did Andrea not become a shaman? 
    She could not endure all the sacrifices that had to be made.
  6. 6. Yolanda lived at a boarding school because 
    her and her sister came down with measles and the Franciscan mission at Santa Clara was one of the few places in the region that offer medical attention. They would only treat them if their mother, Andrea, left them with the nuns. Andrea did not know this until she arrived there.
  7. 7. What did a shaman tell Rosa’s parents? 
    The shaman told them what kinds of offerings to leave with which gods or saints. 
  8. 8. What vows did Rosa pursue? 
    Rosa pursued vows she had made with the particular gods and saints for help in becoming a master artist and for help in excelling in school.
  9. 9. As a shaman Nicolasa specialized in 
    problems of fertility and midwifery.
  10. 10. Why did Nicolasa move away because 
    she was accused of hexing a person who eventually died, reportedly from evil sorcery. In fear for her own life and that of her four younger children, she took them and fled the Sierra for a number of years.
  11. 11. What does a shaman do for one pledging to become a master weaver? 
    A shaman must guide one through a five-year commitment and inst them, based on her dreams and communications with the gods, on how I should proceed. They must learn every aspect contained within the loom, the act of weaving, and the significance of the designs that were woven.
  12. 12. Designs come from 
    their iyari, or heat-memory (which is believed to be genetically inherited), their peyote experiences, and their dreams. 
  13. 13. What marks the four directions? 
    To the east lies Wirikuta, the sacred peyote desert, and the peyote goddess Witi’uwi; to the west is Haramaratsie, the Pacific Ocean, and the goddess of the sea, Haramara; in the north are the caves ‘Ututawita of the goddess ‘Ututawi; and the south lies Xapawiyemeka.
  14. 14. The fifth direction is
     the center of all sacred spaces. It is the center of the community, the center of the temple, the center of the fire, the center of Wirikuta itself.
  15. 15. A prayer is incomplete without 
    the double-shafted prayer arrow decorated with resinous paint, made only by men; the votive bowl women make from a hollowed gourd with pressed beeswax figures decorated with beads; and a candle.

  16. 1.    16.  What do the bowl and arrow signify?
    Phallic and uterine symbolism is found in the arrow and bowl offerings.
  17. 17. What are the Wixaritari seasons?
     Dry season activities and rituals occur form December through May. The rainy season commences in June and lasts to November.

  18. 1.     Define iyari.
    • An iyari is a kind of inherited memory that resides in the heart and is passed down from the ancestors. It is an entity that exists independently of an individual human being, and is associated with thought, experience, and understanding.
    • Iyari=yolia and tonalli
    • Receive iyari at birth or shortly thereafter.
    • Iyari grows and matures along with body.
    • Heart memory, good thoughts.
    • Desire to weave came from a clean and pure place within the pledger.
    • God's eye is fontanel, entry place. God's eye is snare, trap, holding-in the iyari soul.
  19. 19. Define K+puri. 
    A k+puri is a kind of vital principle that comes with life. 
  20. 20. What can and can’t menstruating women do? 
    Menstruating women are not allowed to make the native maize beer nawa. They also cannot go into the milpa when planting things—squash, watermelon, maize, and also when the ears [of the maize] have formed because everything will dry up, but some do not dry up, but they will not produce. Menstruating women are also not supposed to touch peyote until the mara’akame has made them “safe” by cutting a lock of their hair at the crown of the head.  All menstruating women must inform the mara’akame of their state; otherwise, it is believe that these women put all the pilgrims in grave danger because their blood will spoil the peyote.
  21. 21. When is peyote used? 
    Peyote is consumed during the pilgrimage to Wirikuta, and again when the pilgrims return, bringing peyote selected especially for family and cargo members who stayed behind in the Sierra. Peyote is also eaten during deer hunt rituals, the ceremony Hikuri Neixa (the Dance of the Peyote), and Semana Santa (Holy Week), when it is offered to the church and governing suthorities. It is also ingested in small doses to assuage hunger and thirst, provide energy and alertness, control pain, and cure various ills such as bacterial infections, stomach problems, and scorpion stings. Both men and women consume peyote throughout their lives, and many women do so even in pregnancy and especially while in labor, to ease the pains of childbirth.
  22. 22. Usually there is at least _______in the family.
    one shaman 
  23. 23. What are the names (English) of the five temple districts?
    San Andrés Cohamiata has the temple Venus, the Morning Star; in the community of Cohamiata, to the east, the temple the Rattlesnake; the Las Guayabas temple thethe Rain Serpent, to the west; and north of San Andrés proper in San José is the larges of all the temple groups, Our Sun Deity. The fifth temple district is Las Pitayas, to the south the Place Where the First Brazil Trees Appeared.
  24. 24. Briefly describe the cargo system.
     The cargo system operates on many social levels. Community, government, and church cargos, originally introduced during Spanish colonial times, have features similar to those of other indigenous civil and religious cargo systems in Mexico as described by Cancian (1976) and in numerous ethnographies of Mexican Indian groups. Wixarika cargo system, like those of other Mexican Indian societies, has been adapted in each community to accommodate local beliefs, traditions, and cultural orientations.
  25. 25. What is a mechanism for curbing promiscuity 
    Wixárika traditions contain a built-in mechanism that curbs much promiscuity. When Wixáritari are cargo holders or are involved in completing themselves in weaving and the arts or in becoming a mara’akame, they may not remarry or engage in sexual relations with anyone other than their spouses. This prohibition holds for the first five years after pledging oneself to a particular deity or deities, or until one completes the religious obligations. Wixáritari believe that the person who commits such a transgression not only endangers him- or herself, but the entire family and temple community as well.
  26. 26. What is the special ritual at dawn?
     During ceremonies in the rancho in which the mara’akame sings all night, there is a special ritual at dawn in which women, especially those of childbearing age, sweep the patio. This ritual act is a way for women to welcome the sun and pray to Niwet+kame, the goddess of weaving and childbirth, for luck in conceiving and giving birth to healthy children. Young married women are especially encouraged to participate in this activity.
  27. 27. Women who produce ________________________lazy.
    Women who produce poorly made textiles for their family, or who do not embroider or weave at all, are scorned and are considered lazy.
  28. 29. Shamans-in-training do what? 
    Learning to be a shaman is a life-long endeavor that begins with an initial five-year apprenticeship. The novice usually turns to a close family member in the rancho, often a parent or grandparent, who is a mara’akame. Through the apprenticeship, the initiate learns more of the cosmological landscape and develops his or her dreaming abilities with the help of the sacred peyote. Shamans-in-training make plants and animal allies, learn the causes of illness, and study the supernatural methods of curing and the use of medicinal plant remedies. Most importantly, a shaman-initiate develops a special relationship with Kauyumarie, the deer person, who will be his or her messenger and link to the Wixárika gods. Throughout years of specialized training, the mara’akame, with the help of the tutelary spirits, leads agricultural and curing ceremonies in the rancho for the family and in the community.
  29. 30. What are the different kinds of shamans? 
    Some are only healers, and they may specialize in curing certain illnesses such as skin problems, heart conditions, or the evil effects brought on by sorcerers. Others are healers and singers, and these mara’akate sing for family and temple ceremonies and are considered more powerful and influential in the everyday and the spirit worlds. Among the singing mara’akate those who have cargo to sing in the temples must also have mastered the powers to bring the rains; they are sometimes referred to as rain shamans. Once this skill is learned, a mara’akame may go on to acquire the power to catch, with his hands, the souls of deceased and living family members in the form of rock crystals, the ‘+r+kate. Having mastered all of these powers, a shaman can then be considered for the role of kawiteru, a wise old individual who divines the destiny that family, temple, and community members in the cargos will fulfill.
  30. 31. How did Nicolasa use the beaded lizard ally? 
    The pact Nicolasa made with the ‘imukwi involved catching the large lizard, cutting off the tip of its tail, and anointing her cheeks, wrists, throat, and the base of her feet with its blood. The blood of the ‘imukwi was also used to anoint her power objects: her muwieri (feathered power wand) and her xukuri (votive gourd bowl). For its assistance on her path, Nicolasa made the beaded lizard a small necklace in thanks. She then let her animal ally go free. She repeated this ritual over a period of five years, with five beaded lizards.
  31. 32. Nicolasa’s sacred basket contained her power objects:
     the muwierite her grandfather and father gave her, a stone that is the heart of Kauyumarie, the deer person messenger, and a sacred round mirror that serves as her nierika, her portal into the other worlds. 
  32. 33. Throughout a pregnancy, 
    special attention is given to dreams the shaman, the pregnant woman, and family members have that could reflect upon the health of the mother and her unborn child.
  33. 34. Why are women shamans circumspect about their powers? 
    Women prefer to keep their powers secret because they fear that their male counterparts will become jealous and resort to sorcery to take their powers away.
  34. 35. How do you become a master weaver? 
    The apprenticeship takes at least five years to complete and closely parallels the path followed by shaman-initiates. Those who decide to follow this path take on a spiritual quest that requires them to fulfill religious vows—to “complete themselves” according to Wixarika customs. One begins this specialist training as a girl, or later, as a married woman. An individual who chooses to follow this training consults a shaman, for five consecutive years advised the novice as to the particular gods and supernatural allies with whom she must form special relationships, and the kind of ritual undertaking that she must complete for them. Part of the training requires the mastery of back-strap weaving technology. Through the process of learning how to make thread, operate the loom and weave the threads into visible form, a woman is introduced to another way of perceiving the world, one that meshes cosmological concepts learned in acquiring technical competency with her own creative renderings of life that surrounds her. Another important skill learned in the process is the selling of her weaving and other artwork—in other words, she acquires a working knowledge of the economic market. Earning money from her work, she will be able to provide the necessary offerings, such as a sacrificial animal, often a calf. It also helps her to cover the costs of sponsoring the final ceremony that marks her transformation to a master weaver.
  35. 36. What is done with the placenta? 
    The placenta along with the afterbirth are wrapped and deposited high in the hollow of a tree. 
  36. 39. What constitutes a sacred bundle for Wixarika?
    Found throughout the Americas. Individual and group bundle keepers are a heterosexual couple. If carried, man. Personal bundels can be bought, captured, destroyed, renewed. Not tribal bundles. 
  37. 40. Where, what, and why is a kaxke?
  38. 41. What are the problems associated with sheep? 
    Even today wool is difficult to obtain for various reasons. Sheep and their wool can be a costly investment given the supply shortage and demand for this animal. Sheep are more vulnerable than goats and other livestock in the high mountainous areas of the Wixarika Sierra and are more likely to fall to their deaths down the steep cliffs or to be eaten by coyotes or other predatory animals. Competition among Wixaritari and encroaching mestizos for grazing and agricultural lands, compounded by numerous livestock epidemics, also contribute to a shortage of sheep. In the Wixarika part of the Sierra, few families will part with their animals, which drives the price for sheep so high that Wixaritari will go on foot on distant Cora and Tepehuan Indian communities to buy the animals and carry them back, sometimes slung over their backs with the sheep’s feet tied together.
  39. 1. What does thinking with a good heart mean? 
    You should concentrate on your heart and the good thoughts that come from this part of you. You would need to direct my good thoughts as prayers to the goods, so they would see that my desire to become a good weaver was true and your reasons for achieving this goal came from a “clean” and “pure” place from within you. 
  40. 2. To demonstrate to a deity your wishes to become a master weaver you could
     leave offerings for a particular deity or deities at special places where they dwell.
  41. 3. What form might these take? 
    Women had left a weaving batten made as an offering beside some votive arrows and a tsik+ri (thread cross). In certain circumstances, a girl or woman may leave a miniature loom for a special deity in its good house.
  42. 4. Which deities are particularly appropriate for a weaver to pray to? 
    PAritsika (the god of scorpions and the hunt), Takutsi Nakawe (the old creator goddess), and Wexik+A (the sun) are expecially good deities to appea to for luck in weaving.

  43. 1.     5. What offerings did the Carrillo family make before and on the pilgrimage to Haramaratsie? 
    Pilgrimage to Haramaratsie, San Blas coast.Sacrificed pregnant cow in the church during holy week.Took offerings for the sea goddess for others.Snall woven band, buy candles for good health and luck in weaving.Remain pure until offerings reached destination: no food, water, or sex.
  44. 6. What did the pilgrims do at the sea?
    Waded into water: spoke to goddess, threw in offerings. Passed Schaefer's offerings over the head. Submerged self several times. Collected bottles of ocean water. Annointed those on shore, by spraying water on face.
  45. 7. How long does it take to complete in any skill?
     Regardless of the person’s or family’s desire, a mara’akame must be consulted to guide the petitioner(s) over a five-year period in fulfilling the vows through prayer offerings and ceremonies.

  46. 1.    8.  For most women the norm is to complete in 
    three media: embroidery, beadwork, and weaving.
  47. 9. What is a major way designs are distributed? 
    When a girl leaves an offering with a god, she, in turn, may take one of the offerings previously left by another girl or woman for that same god. This exchange can only occur if the girl has left her offering in the place of the earlier one. She then takes the “borrowed” offering home and copies the design, after which she must return the borrowed piece and leave another one that she has made herself.
  48. 10. Which places did the author leave offerings as part of her completion? 
    She was instructed to leave offerings during Holy Week with Tatata, San Jose, and Tatunatsi in the church in San Andres, and with another saint named Hapaxuki, who at the time resided in the Wixarika community of Nuevo Colonia in the Santa Catarina part of the Wixarika Sierra.
  49. 11. Why make the peyote pilgrimage and how does a pilgrim prepare?
     On the peyote pilgrimage the participants are united, and together they undertake this journey to visit the gods and ensure luck, health, and abundance for themselves, their families, and their community. The pilgrimage is also an opportunity for individuals and undergoing their specialist training, whether learning to become a shaman, a master artist, or a master musician, to seek a special communion with the deities and acquire sacred knowledge from them. Before setting off on this trek, the pilgrims must fast, abstain from sex and bathing, and confess before the whole group any sexual transgressions they may have had. Each individual is given a kind of “confession” cord for this ritual. As wach pilgrim speaks aloud the names of his or her sexual partners, and the leading shaman ties a knot in the cord for each wrongdoing, while the group recites the names. The cord is then burned in the sacred fire. Since the purfication rite bonds the pilgrims as a single entity, it is important that everyone participate; otherwise, great harm could befall all the pilgrims. 
  50. 12. Where did she leave offerings on the peyote pilgrimage? 
    The first spot she left offerings  was for Tatei Matiniere at a site on the ancient path to the sacred land of Wirikuta The second place was Tuimaye’u, an area encompassing a small river and several pools of water. The final place was deep within the peyote desert of San Luis Potosi.
  51. 13. How do pledgers relate to Kieri plant? 
    The individual must pledge himself to it for five to ten years. The person is then obligated to bring it offerings which express his/her prayers—such as shaman’s wands for becoming shamans, deer antlers for hunting, embroidery and art work samples for becoming good artists, tiny guitars or violins for becoming good musicians.
  52. 14. Which three animals are particularly sought out by weavers? 
    The wiexu (a kind of boa constrictor), ‘imukwi (the beaded lizard Heloderma horridum, from the Gila monster family), and teka, the lizard commonly known as the horned toad (Phrynosoma).
  53. 15. Describe the offerings, their placement, and the actions with them in the sing for her mother. 
  54. 16. What are the color associations? 
    The colors are associated with the cardinal directions. Black is for Haramaratsie in the west, red is for Wirikuta in the east, green is for ‘Ututawita, the sacred cave to the north in Durango, and blue is for the south, Xapawiyemeta, where the goddess Xapawiyemeka lives in Lake Chapala. The center is yellow and signifies the people; and up above is white, like the clouds.
  55. 17. What do ribbons represent? 
    They represent life.
  56. 18. What is in the center of every “field”?
     The sacred center marked by a stone-covered cavity in the ground, where lies the moist earth goddess, Yurienaka.
  57. 19. Reviewing the chapter, what are the four major symbol systems that can be read in the loom?
    • Cargo- Temple Cargo Holders on the pilgrimage to Wirikuta. What are these cargos (jobs, offerings). When pilgrims reach sacred spots on the pilgrimage, they make zigzagging motions. Warp yarn represent the path of the sun. Pilgrims weave selves with sun rays.
    • Sacred places along the Sun's Path- tying and untying
    • Planting and seasons
  58. 20.What are the dimensions of the loom as peyote pilgrimage?
    The first dimension of this symbolic model, the loom stick represents the sacred wood, known as k+pierite (k+pierite, sing) used to make the ceremonial fire. Another level, the loom sticks represent the peyote pilgrims. Another dimension of the loom as a model of the peyote pilgrimage has to do with the path of the journey itself. 
  59. 21.What two sacred items are also characterized as deer? 
    The two sacred items are maize and peyote.
  60. 22. Eating peyote is an act of partaking of 
    the iyari of the gods and the deer person Kauyumari: Wixaritari consume the gods’ heart memory in order to learn from these divine entities.
  61. 23. Finding peyote is equal to
     deer hunting.
  62. 24. Deer blood is 
    recognized as a life-giving substance necessary to nourish the gods, and deer are hunted for their blood as much as for their meat.
  63. 25. In the past, deer were hunted with 
    rope snares. Each man owned a minimum of 20 snares, and when the time came to hunt deer, all the men from a given rancho or temple group would set up their snares in places known as feeding spots or paths used by deer.
  64. 26. How are rifles treated?
     Rifles used for deer hunts are now included in Wixarika rituals and ceremonies. They are carried in dances and processions, shot off into the air during certain points in ceremonies, rest on the shaman’s mar alongside all the temple offerings, and are painted with peyote designs with the yellow paint obtained in Wirikuta for face painting. 
  65. 27. How do women symbolically hunt deer? 
    The female temple members ask the Yukawima for their help in catching deer and rabbits. They care for a special gourd bowl with maize and a replica of a deer inside, and they sing a song in which they solicit the deer. A kawiteru explained to Fikes that this song “is intended to send the deer to its death at the place were there is no escape.”
  66. 28. Deer hunting and the peyote pilgrimage are performed on behalf of 
    maize to ensure its productivity in the rainy season to come. 
  67. 29. In the Hikuri Neixa ceremony what happens in the field? 
    The temple group has decided to plant in the communal maize fields surrounding the temple, all the men set out to plow these fields with horses and mules; where the terrain is steep and rugged, they use planting sticks. When the teams reach the center of the field, a special ceremony takes place in which the temple members leave numerous offerings. These include votive arrows and candles, deer masks, peyote, the blood from sacrificed deer, cattle, and sheep, and votive gourd bowls, several of which contain miniature kauxe weavings for Takutsi and Yurienaka, the moist earth goddess. The sacred ears of maize from the last harvest that have been safely guarded in temple members’ xiriki are also placed here. The shamans then bless the animals, the plows, or the planting sticks, and the men proceed to bury all the offerings under the soil. Kernals from the sacred ears of maize are planted the center of the milpa.
  68. 30. What gender is peyote? Arrows? 
    What gender is peyote? Peyote is female. Arrows? Arrows are male.
  69. 31. Warp and weft represent many things—give three. 
    Following this model, the two weft sticks are associated with the keepers of the fire, Tatewari Muwierimama. Just like the deer that hides among the trees and tall grasses, peyote also seeks cover beneath particular plants in this arid environment. These plants are represented by the warp threads. The warp and weft threads on the loom also represent the rope deer traps, so that through the act of weaving, women symbolically hunt the deer.
  70. 32. Which direction must cotton and wool be spun? 
    Wool and cotton must be spun on the spindle in a clockwise direction.
  71. 33. What does the other direction mean?
     Counter clockwise was divined that something bad would happen.

  72. 34. The sacred tobacco bag is woven inside
     the temple, next to the fire.
  73. 35. The Wixarike temples function as 
    a kind of solar calendar.
  74. 36. When does the New Year start? 
    During the next three months, the sunlight retraces its path until, in December, it once again filters through the southern portal. At this marking of the winter solstice a new year has begun, and the cycle begins anew.
  75. 37. How is the symbolism of haku wood and haka used in the loom? 
    Haku= The warp spacer stick is made from haku, the same solid-cane bamboo used to make Takutsi’s staff, which she used to make the rivers and bring the rains and life into the world. Takutsi’s haku staff is carried by the leader of the peyote dancers during Hikuri Neixa. Haku was also used in the past to construct god houses, and today it plays a role in the birthing experience; boiled and drunk as a medicinal tea, it helps to expel any blood or placenta remaining in the mother’s womb after childbirth. Haka= Traveling down the warp, the next sticks, the shed sticks, are made from haka, a kind of cane. This powerful wood is used to make the rear shafts of votive arrows, and in the past it made up the dance staff used by peyote pilgrims to call upon the sun. Haka also has a role in the birth process, where it is fashioned into a small knife and used to cut the umbilical cord of the newborn.
  76. 1. Which men weave?
     Usually male cargo holders of the temple group weave the wainuri. These male weavers are almost always the leaders of the temple with the cargos of tsaurixika, the leading mara’akame, tatari, who is tsaurixika’s singing assistant, and +r+ kwekame, the one in charge of the temple and offerings.
  77. 4. Why was Andrea reluctant to weave the wainuri? 
    Her daughter Gabriela explained that “There are few women who weave the bag because they do not want to be involved with something so powerful. That’s why the men weave the bag. To make the bag means that the person has entered into something that has no end and has to continue making these bags for the rest of his or her life.”
  78. 5. What is the most sacred temple object ______. Where does its power come from?
    5. What is the most sacred temple object wainuri. Where does its power come from? The power embodied within the miniature woven bag comes from the sacred tobacco, makutsi, inside.
  79. 6. When and why sweep?
    Right before awn women of child bearing age and/or pregnant women sweep to greet the sun and ask for easy pregnancy and childbirth.
  80. 1. What specific human rights issue has surfaced since athor finished her fieldwork? 
    Wixaritari are experiencing increased human rights abuses lately due to land rights violations and to the denial of their constitutional rights, evidenced by the military’s incarceration of Wixaritari pilgrims for transporting peyote to their homelands.
  81. 2. What is the author doing for the Wixarikari?
    She is working collaboratively with interested Wixaritari and other colleagues to document and revitalize Wixarika textile arts and natural dye techniques. With her colleague Jim Bauml, a botanist at The Arboretum of Low Angeles County, I am collecting information on dye plants, a knowledge that is rapidly disappearing from Wixarika culture. She and Bauml are also collecting voucher specimens (live plants that are pressed and dried for botanical identification and study), as well as the flowers and seeds of dye plants traditionally used by Wixaritari. The information they gather, along with the new seeds Bauml is propagating, available to Wixaritari by disseminating it back to the families.
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2012-11-27 03:09:38

Exam 3 Anthro
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