Bio ch8

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Bio ch8
2012-11-26 17:20:44
bio exam2

photosynthesis ch8
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  1. Autotrophs
    organisms that make their own food without organic molecules derived from another  organism (use CO2 as carbon source)
  2. Photoautotrophs
    autotrophs that use sunlight for energy, CO2 for carbon
  3. Chemoautotrophs
    autotrophs that use reduced chemicals for energy, CO2 for carbon
  4. Photosynthetic organisms produce...
    176 billion tons of carbohydrates per year
  5. What is a major source of heat, light, and cooking fuel for phtosynthetic organisms?
    Buring plant material
  6. Photosynthesis reduces???
  7. Increasing demand and burning of fossil fuel does what??
    increases production of polluting greenhouse gases (CO2)
  8. in redox reactions glucose_____electrons (in H atoms) and becomes what??
    it becomes oxidized and becomes CO2
  9. in redox reactions O2 _____low E electrons (in Hatoms) and becomes ...??
    it Gains and becomes reduced into H2O
  10. in redox reactions electrons _____ potential energy, and energy is ____ and ____ in  ATP
    electrons Lose ptential energy, energy is released and trapped
  11. Photosynthesis is ______ Process??
  12. What happens in the photosynthesis redox process??
    • Reverse overall reaction in cellular respiration
    • H2O is oxidized (giving up an electron)--->O2
    • CO2 is reduced (taking an electron)---> C6H12O6 = glucose
  13. Photosynthesis in the redox process what happens to the electrons??
    Electrons gain energy from H2O to C6H12O6, using light energy captured by chlorophyll
  14. What does cellular respiration do energy wise??
    • releases energy stored in a glucose molecule
    • Oxidized C6H12O6 --> CO2
    • Reduce O2 ---> H2O (O2 as electron dump)
  15. What does photosynthesis do energy wise
    • it captures energy from sun, transfers to glucose
    • Reduce CO2---> C6H12O6
    • Oxidize H2O ---> O2 (H2O as source of electrons)
  16. Cellular Respiration Energy usage =s
    Glucose goes in and then H plus O2 that came out as a result of respiration =s H2O 
  17. Photosynthesis energy usage =s
    H + O2 =H20 glucose comes out
  18. What do plants have for photosynthesis?
  19. The highest chloroplast density is 
    half a million per square millimeter of leaf surface
  20. How do leaves get there color?
  21. Chlorophyll??
    Light absorbing pigment

    Key to conversion of solar energy to chemical energy
  22. Stroma
    thick fluid, site of sugar synthesis, matrix in which grana reside
  23. Thylakoids
    system of interconnected membranes in stroma
  24. Grana
    Stacks of thylakoids
  25. Thylakoid membranes
    contain chlorophyll pgments and ATP synthase
  26. Thylakoid space
    lumen of thylakoid, H+ build up for H+ gradient
  27. Electromagnetic energy
    travels through space as waves
  28. Wavelength (frequency)
    Distance between the crests of two adjacent waves
  29. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    very short gamma rays (high energy) --->very long radio waves (low energy)
  30. Photon
    discrete packet of light energy (shorter wavelength, greater energy)
  31. visible light is at about ??
    380 nm - 750nm
  32. Pigments are 
    thylakoid membranes
  33. pigments asorb what ??
    absorb some wavelengths, reflect or transmit other wavelengths
  34. Chlorophyll pigments ______ and _____ green light??? 
    transmit and reflect
  35. Different pigments ______ light of __________
    absorb light of different wavelengths
  36. Chloroplasts contain ________ pigments
    several pigments
  37. Chlorophyll a absorbs mainly ...??
    Blue-violet and red light
  38. Chlorophyll a participates directly in ...??
    Light Reactions
  39. Chlorophyll a appear grass-green because??
    it reflects mainly green light
  40. Chlorophyll b absorbs mainly ...??
    blue and orange light and reflects yellow-green 
  41. Chlorophyll b broadens the range of usuable light by conveying ..??
    absorbed energy to chlorophyll a
  42. What are the kinds of pigments??
    • thylakoid membranes
    • chlorophyll a
    • chlorophyll b
    • Carotenoids
  43. What do carotenoids do?
    Absorb mainly blue-green light, transmit yellow-orange
  44. What happens to some of the Carotenoids??
    Some pass energy to chlorophyll a
  45. What do some Carotenoids serve as??
    Some serve as a protective function: absorb and dissipate excessive light, protect from damage
  46. Photons
    discrete packets of light energy

  47. an electron at ground state means??
  48. an electron in excited state means?
  49. Generally, when isolated pigment molecules absorb light what happens?
    excited electrons drop down to ground state in a billionth of a second, releasing their excess energy as heat
  50. Some pigments (chlorophyll) emit what??
    Light and heat after absorbing photons
  51. Chlorophyll a absorbs what??
    Photons (excites electrons)
  52. Photosynthesis occurs in two stages
    • Light reaction
    • Calvin cycle 

    6CO2 +6H2O --Light enery/photosynthesis--->glucose + 6O2
  53. Light Reaction is what?
    light energy captured by chlorophyll mlecules in chloroplat provides boost for electrons ---> ATP and NADPH (and O2)
  54. Calvin Cycle is what?
    (Dark Reaction)

    CO2 reduced to C6H12O6 with ATP and NADPH of light reaction
  55. The Calvin cycle happens where?
    in the Stroma
  56. Light reactions occur in ??
  57. Pigments absorb ____ and pass energy from molecule to molecule until it reaches _____
    • Photons
    • Reaction center
  58. _______ _____ is protein complex with a chloropyll a molecule and a ____ _____ ____
    • Reaction center
    • Primary electron acceptor
  59. Primary ______ ______ captures a ____ ____ _____ from the reaction center _______ molecule
    • electron acceptor
    • light excited electron
    • chlorophyll a molecule
  60. a Granum is what??
    a stack of thylakoids
  61. Photosystem II and I are named in ...??
    Named in order of discovery-- Photosystem II functions first
  62. Reaction Center Complexes
    • Photosystem II
    • Photosystem I
    • chlorophyll a molecules are identical
    • Associate w/ different proteins in thlakoid membrane
  63. Photosystem II absorbs what??
    Absorb light with wavelength of 680 nm
  64. Photosystem I absorbs what??
    Absorbs light with wavelength of 700nm
  65. what is the order of electrons in a light reaction
    electron transport from PSII to PS I --> NADP+ (--> NADPH)
  66. What goes into the Calvin Cycle??
    • 3 CO2
    • 9 ATP
    • 6 NADPH
  67. What comes out of the Calvin Cycle??
  68. In general what happens in Light Reactions
    • Light absorbed
    • Water source of electrons to replace PS electrons
    • Electrons transferred to NADP+ ---> NADPH
    • output: NADPH, ATP, O2, H+
  69. In general what happens in the Calvin cycle
    • Carbon fixation (uses CO2)
    • NADPH provides high energy electrons
    • Uses ATP
    • outpus: 3 carbon sugar (G3P)
  70. what is G3P ?
    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate a 3 carbon sugar
  71. What happens in the input of the Calvin Cycle?
    the cycle has to run 3 times to get 1 G3P
  72. To make glucose what do you need?
    2 G3P molecules ----> 18 ATP, 12NADPH and 6CO2
  73. What is the importance of Photosynthesis??
    it generate oxygen and chemical energy
  74. Sugar synthesis supplies plants with..??
    energy and carbon skeletons for making other compounds
  75. Sugar synthesis is stored ...??
    is stored as a starch in various places in the plant (root, seed, fruit etc)
  76. Sugar synthesis provides nutrients for ...??
  77. Oxygen synthesis supplies..??
    Supples oxygen as byproduct
  78. Stomata are what??
    openings in the leaves
  79. Under hot, arid conditions, leaves lose water by evaporation through opening in the leaves called ...???
  80. The stomata close to conserve water but what happens as a result??
    as a result O2 builds up inside the leaves and CO2 cannot enter the leaves
  81. Phtorespriation consumes ______ and Produces ______
    • Consumes Oxygen (no CO2 available)
    • Produces no ATP or sugar
  82. What happens in photorespiration?? 
    • O2 (ATP, NADPH) goes in 
    • Calvin cycle 
    • 2C Compoun come out
  83. 2-phosphoglycolate is what??
    is TOXIC
  84. Avoiding Photorespiration 
    • C4 Pathway
    • CAM Pathway
  85. C4 Pathway incorporates CO2 into ...?
    incorporates CO2 into organic acids in one cell type, release CO2 to enter the Calvin Cycle in another cell type (Spatial)
  86. CAM Pathway incorporates CO2 into ....
    CO2 into organic acids at night, releases CO2 to enter Calvin Cycle during day (Temporal)
  87. what does CAM stand for
    Crassulacean acid metabolism 
  88. C3, C4, CAM plants all do what??
    ALL do light reactions and Calvin Cycle
  89. C3, C4, CAM all on a hot day have what??
    closed stomata 
  90. as a result of being hot C3 does what??
    C3 plants do photorespiration
  91. As a result of being hot C4 does what?
    C4 plants fix CO2 in meophyll cells and shunt the resulting organic acids to bundle-sheath cells to concentrate CO2 there
  92. As a result of being hot CAM does what
    CAM plants fix CO2 at night and break down resulting organic acids in day to generate CO2
  93. What is cellular respiration's energy source?
  94. What is cellular respiration's phosphorylation of ADP---> ATP ??
    Substrate level and Oxidative Phosphorylation
  95. Cellular respiration's site of transformation is where?
    Cytoplasm and Mitochondrion
  96. Photosynthesis site of Transformation is where
  97. Cellular respirations source of electrons are what
  98. Photosynthesis's source of electrons are ??
  99. What are the electrons that end up and which ones get produced with added electrons in cellular respiration
    O2-----> H20
  100. What are the electrons that end up and which ones get produced with added electrons in photosynthesis
    CO2 ---> G3P ---> C6H12O6
  101. What are the electron shuttles in cellular respiration
  102. What are the electron shuttles in photosynthesis
  103. Energy of electrons in the final product of cellular respiration
    Low H2O
  104. Energy of electrons in final product of photosynthesis??
    High Glucose
  105. What do cellular respiration and photosynthesis have in common ??
    The both have an electron transport and H+ gradient for potential energy
  106. is there Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis in cellular respiration??
    Yes Oxidative phosphorylation
  107. is there Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis happen in Photosynthesis?
    Yes Photophosphorylation
  108. Cellular respiration conversion of energy 
    Chemical to chemical
  109. Energy conversion in Photosynthesis
    Light to chemical
  110. What is the sugar conversion pathway in cellular respiration?
    Glucose---> CO2 

    (glycolysis, Citric Acid cycle)
  111. What happens in the sugar conversion pathway in Photosynthesis
    CO2---> G3P

    (Calvin Cycle)