Card Set Information
organisms that make their own food without organic molecules derived from another organism (use CO2 as carbon source)
autotrophs that use sunlight for energy, CO2 for carbon
autotrophs that use reduced chemicals for energy, CO2 for carbon
Photosynthetic organisms produce...
176 billion tons of carbohydrates per year
What is a major source of heat, light, and cooking fuel for phtosynthetic organisms?
Buring plant material
Increasing demand and burning of fossil fuel does what??
increases production of polluting greenhouse gases (CO2)
in redox reactions glucose_____electrons (in H atoms) and becomes what??
it becomes oxidized and becomes CO2
in redox reactions O2 _____low E electrons (in Hatoms) and becomes ...??
it Gains and becomes reduced into H2O
in redox reactions electrons _____ potential energy, and energy is ____ and ____ in ATP
ptential energy, energy is
Photosynthesis is ______ Process??
What happens in the photosynthesis redox process??
Reverse overall reaction in cellular respiration
H2O is oxidized (giving up an electron)--->O2
CO2 is reduced (taking an electron)---> C6H12O6 = glucose
Photosynthesis in the redox process what happens to the electrons??
Electrons gain energy from H2O to C6H12O6, using light energy captured by chlorophyll
What does cellular respiration do energy wise??
releases energy stored in a glucose molecule
Oxidized C6H12O6 --> CO2
Reduce O2 ---> H2O (O2 as electron dump)
What does photosynthesis do energy wise
it captures energy from sun, transfers to glucose
Reduce CO2---> C6H12O6
Oxidize H2O ---> O2 (H2O as source of electrons)
Cellular Respiration Energy usage =s
Glucose goes in and then H plus O2 that came out as a result of respiration =s H2O
Photosynthesis energy usage =s
H + O2 =H20 glucose comes out
What do plants have for photosynthesis?
The highest chloroplast density is
half a million per square millimeter of leaf surface
How do leaves get there color?
Light absorbing pigment
Key to conversion of solar energy to chemical energy
thick fluid, site of sugar synthesis, matrix in which grana reside
system of interconnected membranes in stroma
Stacks of thylakoids
contain chlorophyll pgments and ATP synthase
lumen of thylakoid, H+ build up for H+ gradient
travels through space as waves
Distance between the crests of two adjacent waves
very short gamma rays (high energy) --->very long radio waves (low energy)
discrete packet of light energy (shorter wavelength, greater energy)
visible light is at about ??
380 nm - 750nm
pigments asorb what ??
absorb some wavelengths, reflect or transmit other wavelengths
Chlorophyll pigments ______ and _____ green light???
transmit and reflect
Different pigments ______ light of __________
absorb light of different wavelengths
Chloroplasts contain ________ pigments
Chlorophyll a absorbs mainly ...??
Blue-violet and red light
Chlorophyll a participates directly in ...??
Chlorophyll a appear grass-green because??
it reflects mainly green light
Chlorophyll b absorbs mainly ...??
blue and orange light and reflects yellow-green
Chlorophyll b broadens the range of usuable light by conveying ..??
absorbed energy to chlorophyll a
What are the kinds of pigments??
What do carotenoids do?
Absorb mainly blue-green light, transmit yellow-orange
What happens to some of the Carotenoids??
Some pass energy to chlorophyll a
What do some Carotenoids serve as??
Some serve as a protective function: absorb and dissipate excessive light, protect from damage
discrete packets of light energy
an electron at ground state means??
an electron in excited state means?
Generally, when isolated pigment molecules absorb light what happens?
excited electrons drop down to ground state in a billionth of a second, releasing their excess energy as heat
Some pigments (chlorophyll) emit what??
Light and heat after absorbing photons
Chlorophyll a absorbs what??
Photons (excites electrons)
Photosynthesis occurs in two stages
6CO2 +6H2O --Light enery/photosynthesis--->glucose + 6O2
Light Reaction is what?
light energy captured by chlorophyll mlecules in chloroplat provides boost for electrons ---> ATP and NADPH (and O2)
Calvin Cycle is what?
CO2 reduced to C6H12O6 with ATP and NADPH of light reaction
The Calvin cycle happens where?
in the Stroma
Light reactions occur in ??
Pigments absorb ____ and pass energy from molecule to molecule until it reaches _____
_______ _____ is protein complex with a chloropyll a molecule and a ____ _____ ____
Primary electron acceptor
Primary ______ ______ captures a ____ ____ _____ from the reaction center _______ molecule
light excited electron
chlorophyll a molecule
a Granum is what??
a stack of thylakoids
Photosystem II and I are named in ...??
Named in order of discovery-- Photosystem II functions first
Reaction Center Complexes
chlorophyll a molecules are identical
Associate w/ different proteins in thlakoid membrane
Photosystem II absorbs what??
Absorb light with wavelength of 680 nm
Photosystem I absorbs what??
Absorbs light with wavelength of 700nm
what is the order of electrons in a light reaction
electron transport from PSII to PS I --> NADP+ (--> NADPH)
What goes into the Calvin Cycle??
What comes out of the Calvin Cycle??
In general what happens in Light Reactions
Water source of electrons to replace PS electrons
Electrons transferred to NADP+ ---> NADPH
: NADPH, ATP, O2, H+
In general what happens in the Calvin cycle
Carbon fixation (uses CO2)
NADPH provides high energy electrons
: 3 carbon sugar (G3P)
what is G3P ?
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate a 3 carbon sugar
What happens in the input of the Calvin Cycle?
the cycle has to run 3 times to get 1 G3P
To make glucose what do you need?
2 G3P molecules ----> 18 ATP, 12NADPH and 6CO2
What is the importance of Photosynthesis??
it generate oxygen and chemical energy
Sugar synthesis supplies plants with..??
energy and carbon skeletons for making other compounds
Sugar synthesis is stored ...??
is stored as a starch in various places in the plant (root, seed, fruit etc)
Sugar synthesis provides nutrients for ...??
Oxygen synthesis supplies..??
Supples oxygen as byproduct
Stomata are what??
openings in the leaves
Under hot, arid conditions, leaves lose water by evaporation through opening in the leaves called ...???
The stomata close to conserve water but what happens as a result??
as a result O2 builds up inside the leaves and CO2 cannot enter the leaves
Phtorespriation consumes ______ and Produces ______
Consumes Oxygen (no CO2 available)
Produces no ATP or sugar
What happens in photorespiration??
O2 (ATP, NADPH) goes in
2C Compoun come out
2-phosphoglycolate is what??
C4 Pathway incorporates CO2 into ...?
incorporates CO2 into organic acids in one cell type, release CO2 to enter the Calvin Cycle in another cell type (Spatial)
CAM Pathway incorporates CO2 into ....
CO2 into organic acids at night, releases CO2 to enter Calvin Cycle during day (Temporal)
what does CAM stand for
Crassulacean acid metabolism
C3, C4, CAM plants all do what??
ALL do light reactions and Calvin Cycle
C3, C4, CAM all on a hot day have what??
as a result of being hot C3 does what??
C3 plants do photorespiration
As a result of being hot C4 does what?
C4 plants fix CO2 in meophyll cells and shunt the resulting organic acids to bundle-sheath cells to concentrate CO2 there
As a result of being hot CAM does what
CAM plants fix CO2 at night and break down resulting organic acids in day to generate CO2
What is cellular respiration's energy source?
What is cellular respiration's phosphorylation of ADP---> ATP ??
Substrate level and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Cellular respiration's site of transformation is where?
Cytoplasm and Mitochondrion
Photosynthesis site of Transformation is where
Cellular respirations source of electrons are what
Photosynthesis's source of electrons are ??
What are the electrons that end up and which ones get produced with added electrons in cellular respiration
What are the electrons that end up and which ones get produced with added electrons in photosynthesis
CO2 ---> G3P ---> C6H12O6
What are the electron shuttles in cellular respiration
NAD+. NADH, FAD/FADH2
What are the electron shuttles in photosynthesis
Energy of electrons in the final product of cellular respiration
Energy of electrons in final product of photosynthesis??
What do cellular respiration and photosynthesis have in common ??
The both have an electron transport and H+ gradient for potential energy
is there Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis in cellular respiration??
Yes Oxidative phosphorylation
is there Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis happen in Photosynthesis?
Cellular respiration conversion of energy
Chemical to chemical
Energy conversion in Photosynthesis
Light to chemical
What is the sugar conversion pathway in cellular respiration?
(glycolysis, Citric Acid cycle)
What happens in the sugar conversion pathway in Photosynthesis