Biomedical Core

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Biomedical Core
2012-11-26 17:37:59

Objective 15
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  1. Vertebrae are stacked in a
    Vertebral column: which runs the length of the back.
  2. The vertebra are named by
    region, then number, from superior to inferior.
  3. The most superior seven vertebrae called
    Clervical (neck). The region is designated by a letter "C" and number, C1-C7
  4. What comes after the cervical region?
    12 Thoracic (chest) vertebrae. Each of them have a matching rib; there are 12 matching ribs.  T1-T12
  5. The last 5 with joints between them
    Lumbar (loin) vertebrae, L1-L5.
  6. L5 usually forms a joint with the
    first sacral (holy) vertebrae (S1). In most people, there are five fused sacral vertebrae. That is, S1 through S5 are joined in an immobile, locked state.
  7. Several small coccygeal vertebrae fuse to form the
    coccyx (tailbone), the end of the vertebral.
  8. The largest part of the vertebra is the
  9. A joint between two adjacent bodies is filled with a disk of fibrocartilage that has a soft center, like a jelly donut. This is called the
    Intervertebral disc
  10. Two _________ ________ extend laterally; a ______ connects each of these to the body.
    transverse processes; pedicle
  11. Along the midline, there is a _______ _______ which protrudes posteriorly. This is joined to the transverse processes by _______.
    spinous process; laminae
  12. Taken together, the medial surfaces of the body, processes, pedicles and laminae form a large hole called the ______ _______ that allows passage of the spinal cord.
    Vertebral foramen
  13. The first cervical (C1) and second cervical (C2) vertebrae are highly specialized. These need to allow for 80 degree rotation while
    supporting the weight of the head.
  14. Atlas = C1
    The joint between the occipital bone of skull and the atlas is called the atlanto-occipital joint. This joint allows us to nod.

    -No body, minimal spinous process
  15. Axis = C2
    - small body

    - body contains tooth-like "peg" (dens) which projects superiorly into vertebral foramen of atlas

    - not shown: transverse ligament of C1 which holds dens in place but allows for rotation
  16. Cervical vertebrae 3-7 are more
  17. One unique feature of cervical vertebrae is that the posteriorly-projecting spinous process (the one on the midline) is
    bifid - (two-pronged) spinous process. It has a "forked tongue".
  18. C7 is called
    Vertebra prominens; because it can easily be palpated (felt with your fingers) along the back of your neck.
  19. Ribs articulate at two points
    Transverse process of vertbra ----> tubercle of rib

    Body of vertebrae ----> head of rib
  20. Inferior articular fact of more superior vertebra forms
    moveable joint with superior articular facet of more inferior vertebra
  21. Lumbar vertebrae designed to carry a
    large amount of weight.

    -Therefore have thick, strong body.
  22. In conventional lateral spine x-rays, lumbar vertebrae resemble a
    "scotty dog"
  23. Sacrum is made up of
    5 fused vertebrae (S1-S5)
  24. Coccyx is made up of
    3-4 fused vertebrae (number varies)
  25. Transitional vertebrae are a relatively common anatomical variation
    - In 10% of humans, there is an internertebral disk & joint between S1-S2 (lumbarization of S1)

    - In 14% of humans, there is a fusion of L5 and S1 (sacralization of L5)