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Ribs 1-7 are
- True ribs.
- -articulate on thoracic vertebrae (T1-T7)
-Costal cartilage (a type of hyaline cartilage) connects these to sternum.
- False ribe.
- -articulate on thoracic vertebrae (T8-T10)
-connects to sternum through rib 7's cartilage
Ribs 11 & 12
- Floating ribs.
- -articulate on thoracic vertebrae (T11-T12)
-does not connect to sternum
Appendicular skeleton includes bones of
upper and lower extremities.
- Analogies between:
- humerus and femur
- radius/ulna and tibia/fibula
- carpals and tarsals
- metacarpals and metatarsals
- phalanges and phalanges
- Radius (lateral)
- Ulna (medial)
- Carpals (8)
- Metacarpals (5)
- Phalanges (14)
- -3 rows for fingers
- -2 in thumb
The shoulder (pectoral) girdle is supported by the clavicle, or collarbone; and the scapula, or shoulder blade. Together, these form the socket for the head of the humerus, which is called the
The longest and thickest bone of the upper extremity is the
humerus; the head of the humerus fits into the socket of the glenoid fossa to form the shoulder joint. Anatomist call the structures between the shoulder joint and the elbow joint the "arm" and between the elbow and the wrist the "forearm".
The bones of the forearm, the radius and ulna, articulate with the
distal humerus at the elbow joint.
Pelvis connects axial skeleton to lower extremity.
Made up of three pairs; ilium (flank); ischium (hip); pubis (groin)
Ilium forms joint with sacrum (sacroiliac joint)
Two halves joined at pubic symphysis.
Socket for head of femur (acetabulum)
- Tarsals (7)
- Metatarsals (5)
- Phalanges (14)
- -only 2 phalanges in great toe
Because bones are thickened under stress, bone shapes
reflect points of attachment by tendons or ligaments.
Also need holes for nerves and blood vessels to pass through.
Common names of bones shapes
- Condyle: knuckle
- Epicondyle: on top of a condyle
- Foramen: window
- Fossa: ditch
- Process: projection (xiphoid process)
- Spine: like process but pointy
- Trochanter: runner, ball of hip joint
- Trochlea: pulley
- Tubercle: little potato
- Tuberosity: potato-like bump
In adult skull, all bones joined
tightly so only boveable joint is between temporal and mandibular bones.
In fetal and newborn life, broad
bands of fibrocartilage (fontanels) connect skull bones.
The easiest fontanel to find on a newborn is the anterior fontanel, the place where the
two (left and right) frontal bones join the two (left and right) parietal bones.
Anterolateral fontanel is where the
temporal, parietal and frontal bones are joined.
The posterior fontanel is
along the midline between the parietal and occiptial bones.
The posterolateral fontanel is where the
parietal, occipital and temporal bones meet.
The only moveable joint in the adult skull is the
In the first few months of life, the fontanels fuse and become bone, but the remnants of these joints remain as
sutures of the skull, zigzag lines that hold the bones of the skull together tightly.
In females, the angle between the ischial tuberosities, called the
pubic arch, is generally greater than 90 degrees, while in males the angle is less than 90 degrees
Pelvic brim (pelvic inlet), the oval region defined by the medial aspect of the ilia, is
larger in females as well.
Greater sciatic notch
larger in females
Synarthrotic joints are
not capable of functional movement. Perhaps the joints in your skull can move, but you really would prefer it if they didn't
Amphiarthrotic joints are
Sternocostal (sternum-ribs); pubic symphysis
Diarthrotic joints are
fully moveable. The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints are examples of these.