Biomed Module 9 obj.11-14

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  1. Bone remodeling in children and Adults
    • Remember that there is constant remodeling of bone 
    • Aslo in children, long bones growing because of active epiphyseal plates
    •   -after puberty , growth hormone (hGH) levels decreaseand epiphyseal plates "close" (i.e. turn into bone, the epiphyseal line)
    • If tumor makes hGH in adults, enochondral ossification impossible but membranous bone formation can continue
  2. True or False: In children, bone is undergoing several dynamic processes all at once.
  3. Throughout our lifetimes, bone is involved in clacium _________.
  4. In all individuals bone is constantly ___________..., with a wedge of osteoclasts forming a ________ _____ while a wedge of ________ come along behined in a ______ _____ and seal up the cavity that is formed.
    remodeled, cutting cone, osteoblasts, closing cone
  5. True or false: It is likely that children's bones are more responsive to wheight-bearing exercise than adult bones.
    False. less responsive 

    in adult bones, moderate stress thickens bone and promotes formation of bone.
  6. ________ _______ ________ levels are high in childhood, begin decreasing after _________, and finally drop to very low leves in ______ ______.
    Human growth hormone, puberty, young adults
  7. At the other end of life, the _______ have very low levels of ________ and tend to have problems with _________ _______ and _________. This may result in the disease ________(literally, "holes in bone") which weakens bone.
    elderly, hGH, calcium absorption, homeostasis, osteroporosis
  8. True or False: Stress on bones decrease bone formation.
    False. stress increases bone formaton
  9. Good stress in adults bones,
    • weight-bearing exercise increases bone thickness(not length)
    •   -Increased blood supply to periosteum
    •   -Periosteoum surrounds blood vessels and forms new osteons
  10. Bad stress in adults bones
    Friction in joints cause formation of bone spicules 
  11. Whay do some patients on glucocorticoid therapy and some diabetes drugs have osteoporosis as a side effect?
    These drugs inhibit osteoblasts, and create an imbalance where osteoclasts are working faster than osteoblasts.
  12. When bone remodeling is out of balance in adults, __________ results.
  13. True or False: It is easer to inhibit osteoclasts than to stimulate osteoblasts.
  14. What are some drugs used to treat osteoporosis?
    • Bisphoshonates (Fosamax, Actonel, Didronel) bind to hydroxyapatite and reduce osteoclastic activity.
    • Oral calcium increases blood calcium and pushes system to deposit calcium in bone.
  15. What makes up the Axial skeleton?
    • Bones located in the center of the body (axial = "central")
    • From head to coccyx
    •   -skull
    •   -vertebrae
    •   -ribs and sternum
  16. What makes up the Appendicular Skeleton?
    • Bones that form the upper and lower extremities
    •   -Bones of the arm 
    •   -Forearm
    •   -Wrist and hand
    •   -Scapula and clavicle- these stabilize the shoulder girdle
    •   -thigh
    •   -Leg
    •   -ankle
    •   -Foot
    •   -Pelvis- (actually three bones) stabilizes the lower extrmity and forms the soket of the hip joint.
  17. Short bones
    • are about as long as they are wide (shaped like a wooden block or lego)
    • i.e the carpal bones of the wrist and the tarsal bones of teh ankle.
  18. Flat bones
    • The bone equivalant to squamos cells (wide and thin)
    • The sternum is a flat bone
  19. Irregular bones
    • a garbage category for bones that don't have any definable shape
    • Ex: the vertebrae
  20. Sesamoid bone
    • "shaped like a sesame seed"
    • a small round, flat bone 
    • cand arise as a result of trauma to muscle
    • Sometimes bones of the skull include small sesamoid bones as well.
    • the only normal example in humans is the patella.
  21. The _____ is a relatively complicated _____  of several different  bones. Each of the bones in the skull formed ________, then fused together.
    skull, fusion, separately 
  22. Bones of the skull (Lateral view)
    • Frontal bone
    • occipital bone
    • parietal bone
    • Temporal bone
    • see p.402
  23. Bones of the skull (Superior and posterior views)
    • Frontal bone
    • parietal bone
    • occipital bone
    • see p.402
  24. Bones of the Skull ( Anterior view)
    • Lacrimal bone
    •   -structures assosciatee with tears
    •   -is in the orbit of the eye
    • Maxilla- upper jawbone
    • Mandible- lower jawbone
    • Zygomatic bone- with a prominent zygomatic arch, forms high cheekbones 
    • Pluss all previously identified bones
    • see p.402
  25. Imagine we split the skull inhalf along the midline witha very sharp saw. This would be a _____________ cut.  After removing the soft structures, we can see the four large, flat bones from the later a view: _______ ______, _______ _____, ______ ______, and ________ ______.
    midsagittal, occipital bone, parietal bone, temporal bone, frontal bone
  26. Bones of the Skull (Midsagittal section, lateral view)
    • ethmoid bone- part of the nasal sinuses
    • hyoid bone- a horseshoe-shaped, "floating" bone in the neck.
    • nasal bone- small bone that forms the bridge of the nose
    • palatine bone- forms the roof of the mouth (palate)
    • sphemoid bone- green bone with complex shapein center of diagram on p. 403.
    • vomer- a bone between the ethmoid, maxilla and palatine
  27. In order for _______ and ______ _______ to pass in and out of the skull, it is necessary to have large and small _______ in the skull. These are called ________.  There are also shallow ________ called ______.
    nerves, blood vessels, holes, foramina, depressions, fossae
  28. Bones of the skull ( Horizontal section, superior view)
    • ethmoid bone- (narrow ridge in the front) forms the interior upper ceiling of the nasal sinuses.  There, nerves carrying smell info. pass through ofactory foramina in the sponge-like cribriform plate.
    • Sphenoid bone- the optic foramen forms a hole for the optic nerve to pass from eye to brain 
    •   -they hypophyseal fossa forms a ditch that holds the pituitary gland (hypophysis); and an overal shaped hole (foramen ovale) allows the passage of nerves and blood vessels
    • Occipital bone- foramen magnum- a huge hole allows the spinal cord to exit the skull.
    • see p. 404 objective 14
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Biomed Module 9 obj.11-14
2012-12-11 21:58:57
Biomed Module obj 11 14

Biomed Module 9 obj.11-14
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