occupational health

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  1. Occupation health 3 areas
    • 1) promotion and maintainence of the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workese in all occupations 
    • 2) the prevention among workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions
    • 3) the protections of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse from to health
  2. What is occupational health?
    health outcomes that are caused or influenced by exposure to general conditions or specific hazards encountered in the work environment
  3. What is the goal of occupational health?
    send each and every worker home in the condition they arrived
  4. occupational medicine
    medical speciality focusing on detection and prevention of diseases that arise from the work environment
  5. occupational disease
    defined as those health outcomes that are caused or influenced by exposure to general conditions or specific hazards encountered in the work environment
  6. origin of occupational health
    • recognition of occupational risks from mining occured Greek and Roman times.
    • + is not a new issue--problem was recognized many years ago
  7. Noteworthy figures in history:
    1) traced back to 460-377 BC when Hippocrates discussed hazards of metal in working environment (founder of modern

    2) paracelsus (1493-1541) wrote a book on occupational disease (miners diseases) --dose response, contribution to the  field
  8. Bernardino Ramazzini
    -father of...
    -focused on...
    -his book.... highlighted...
    • (1633-1714)
    • Considered the "father of occupational medicine"

    • described the manifestations of occupational diseases
    • focused on workers health problems in a systematic and scholary way
    • his book De Morbis Artifcum Diatriba (diseases of workers) was published in 1700.
    • highlighted risks of hazardous chemical dusts, medals used in the workplace
  9. Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970)
    -founder of...
    -a pioneer in the field of ... which is...
    -first women ....
    • The founder of Industrial Hygiene
    • A leading expert in occupational health
    • A pioneer in the field of toxicology-studying Occupational Illness and the dangerous effects of industrial metals and chemical compounds
    • First lady professor in Harvard School of medicine
  10. black lung disease
    -first described in...
    -caused by....
    -required to be...
    • disease 1st described in 1822
    • caused by prolonged breathing of coal mine dusts (i.e. silicia  and carbon)
    • required to be eliminated from the industry in 1969
  11. Occupation Diseases in Historical Literature (5 things)
    • *from each incidence we learn something 
    • Miners Asthma
    • Potters rot
    • Mad Hatters disease
    • Mule spinners' cancer
    • Phossy Jaw
  12. Miners' Asthma
    • black lung disease
    • anthracosis
    • black lung
    • black spittle
    • coal workers
    • pnemoconiosis
    • and silicosis chronic occupational lung
  13. Potters Rot
    • Also known as Silocosis- a form of occupational lung disease (working with pots, sand and dust) 
    • *not a respitory disease---> lung!

    Caused by inhalation of silica dust-marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes (lungs)
  14. Mad Hatter Disease
    • neurotoxins (ppl working in hat factors with mercury)
    • a disease of the nervous system caused by mercury poisoning
    • it refers to the side effects of prolonged mercury exposure on hatters who had to work with mercury-treated fur and felt
    • it was an occurrence in the late 1800s
    • mercury exposure causes aggressive irrational behavior and mood swings
    • Banned in December 1941 in the US
  15. Phossy Jaw
    formally known as
    WP is the active ...
    chronic exposure leads to...
    • formally known as phosphorous necrosis of the jaw- an occupational disease of those who work with white phosorus (matches--issues with ) without proper safegaurds
    • WP is thw actice ingrediant in most matches from 1840 to 1920s
    • chronic exposure to vapor of WP leads to is deposition in the jaw bones of workers
  16. Mule Spinners Cancer
    • Clothes!
    • A high indicende of scrotal cancer in cotton mule cancer
    • 1st eported in 1887 in a cotton spinning mills
    • *in more industrialized countries
    • caused by prolonged actions of mineral oils (carcinogenic) on the skin of the scrotum
  17. Triangle Shirt Wasit Company Fire
    • occurred in March 25 1911
    • 146 young women died in 15 minutes
    • doors were locked and fire escapes were non-functional
  18. Gauley Bridge Disaster
    • Covered a time span that began about 1931
    • caused exposure of unprotected workers to a high levels of silica dusts
    • resulted in 1,500 cases of silicosis and 1,000 deaths
    • -didn't have good protection, and the mountains kept it in, less than 3 years and 500 ppl died, after another 500 people died

    ** these 2 stories are considered the most serious disasters in occupational hazards 
  19. Occupational and Environmental Health (in the US)
    __ mill people...
    ___ mill injuries and illnessess in ______
    ____ ____work injuries in ____
    • 3 million ppl suffered nonfatal injuries and illnesses were reported by private industry employers in 2011. 
    • 1.18 million injuries and illnesses in private industry required recuperation away from work beyond the day of the inciden in 2011
    • 4,609 fatal work injuries in 2011. 
  20. graph
    • Which company is best big or small?
    • small of course the number is much lower and this may because it is easier to manage
    • employees per company---
    • may be due to equipment, capabilities etc
  21. the costs of occupational injuries, illness and fatalities
    -direct costs
    -indirect costs
    • direct costs of injuries in 2002 were estimated at 45.8 billion for private seotr
    • indirect costs in 2002 were estimated to be up to $229 million for private industry
    • job-related injuries and illness estiamted to cost nation $250 billlion annuially (Jan 2012)
  22. leading causes of disabling conditions
    • spains and strain
    • bruises and conusions
    • cuts, laceration, and punctures
    • in 2008 a tota l of 71.2 injuries took place in the service providing sectors
  23. Agents of occ disease
    • noise
    • dusts
    • toxic heavy metals
    • carbon monoxide
    • chemicals
    • inonizing radiation
    • microbial agents
    • lifting heavy weights
    • reptitive motion
    • workplace accidents
    • work-related stress
  24. Noise
    • the term ototoxic refers to agents that can produce hearing loss
    • otoxic agents include very lound sounds and several classes of drugs and chemical used in the work enviroment 
    • (example -- cutting concrete)
  25. toxic heavly metals and their fumes
    • toxic heavy chemical (arsenic, lead mercurym cqadmium, chromium, nickel)
    • processing and milling of heavy metals puts workers at risk of breathing fumes and dusts that contain toxic levels of these metals 
  26. carbon monoxide
    • an odorless, hazardous, toxic gas
    • found in many work settings and causes death by depriving the body of oxygen
    • persons with conditions such as lung disease, heart disease, and anemia are at increased risk of the effects of C02
  27. microbial agents
    • are a source of health risks for workers in many occupational categories
    • for example, health care workers exposed to sewage and argicultural workers may be exposed to bacteria, viruses, and disease carrying insects.
  28. work-related stress
    • chronic stress has been implicated in a range of somatic conditions
    • term going postal refers to employees who react to stressful condition of the environment by committing violent acts
  29. occupation associated dieases and condition
    • allergic and irritant dermatitis
    • respirtatory disease
    • chronic obsutrctuve pulmonary, disease and asthma
    • fertilit and pregancy abnormality
    • hearing loss caused by noise
    • musculoskeletal disorders
    • trauatic injuries and fatalities
    • conditions associated with job stress
  30. alleric and irritant dermatitis
    • skin is one of the most common sites of contact with chemical in the workplace
    • manufacturing, construction, food production, activities such as metal plating and engine service put workers at higher risk for skin diseases 
  31. respiratory disease
    • Many of the work-related respiratory diseases are chronic conditions that have long latecny periods
    • asbestosis, coal workers, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, mesothelioma, lung cancers are examples of work-related respiratory diseases
  32. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma
    • about 30% of cases of COPD and asthma can be linked to occupational exposures 
    • COPD is related to workplace exposure to dusts
    • Asthma has become the most frequently diagnosed occupational respiratory disease in the US
  33. Fertility and Pregnancy Abnormalities
    • examples are birth defects, prematurity, low-birth weight, spontenous abortions, and developmental disabilities
    • a total of 4 million chemical in use commericially have not been tested for their reproductive effects 
    • most of the 1,000 chemicals usedi n the work environment that have been demonstrated to cause adverse reproductice effects among animals. 
  34. Hearing Loss Caused by Noise
    • the second most-commonly self-reported occupational injury or illness 
    • as many as 10 million workers in the  us suffer from noise-induced hearing loss
    • prolinged exposure may results in psychiological reactions that adversly impact  the immune system and physical well-being
  35. Two ermployment categories affected by noise
    • construction indutsy-bulldozers, heavy trucks, and loading machine
    • health care industry- bone cutting drills and suctioning devices
  36. Infectious diseased (ex of workers at right)
    • health care
    • public utility
    • agricultural
    • social service
    • clinical lab
    • mortuary
    • adult film
  37. MSD
    • Musculoskeletal disorder refers to an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, cartilage, or spinal disks
    • over 435,180 cases of MSD reported in the USA in 2003 of which 76% causes by sprains, strains and tears
  38. common MSD in the workplace
    • spains, strains,, tears
    • back pain hurt back, 
    • carpal tunnel syndrome
    • soreness, pain, hurt, except the back
    • hernia
    • MSD system and connective tissue diseases and disorders, except tendonitis
  39. Traumatic injuries and fatalities
    • acture trauma is one of the major sources of work related death and disability
    • in 2007 approximately 15 workers died every day in the US 
    • the BLS (what is this?) reported a total of 5,214 fatal occupational injuries
  40. industry accounting for the largest frequenty of death
    • 1) construction
    • 2) transportation
    • 3) agriculture, foresty, fishing, and hunting
    • 4) mining
  41. 10 most dangerous jobs by fatality rate
    • 1. logging workers
    • 2. aircraft pilots
    • 3. fishers and fishing workers
    • 4. structual iron and steel workers
    • .....
    • ** fisheries!
  42. chart
    some have no deaths but a lot of injuries --percentage may be low but the cumulative number could be very high because some industries have a lot more workers
  43. job stress
    the term job stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities resources, or needs of the worker
  44. Conditions associated with job stress
    • anxiety
    • stress
    • neurotic disorders
    • going postal
    • critical incident stress
  45. OSH Act
    • Occ safety and health Act
    • passed in 1970
    • creatd because the stat workers compensation statutes wre not preventing fatalities and traumatic injuries in the workplace
    • created thee new agencies 
  46. OSHA
    • within the Department of labor
    • promulgates occupational safety and health standards
    • responsible for the national occupational injury and illness reporting system
    • authorized to inspect most workplaces, and issues citations and civil penalties
    • 29 CFR 1910 General Indusry
    • 29 CFR 1926 Construction Industry
    • (federal register Code of Federal Regulation) 
  47. NIOSH
    National institute of occ safety and health
  48. NIOSH
    • is in the DOHHS
    • FINISH
  49. OSHRC
    • occ safety and health review commision
    • withing the fed goverment adjucate disputes arising between busines owner and the DOL
    • these disputes concern federal inspection of workplace conditions in which employers are cited for having violated OSHA standards 
  50. Occ Prevention
    • Primary prevention methods
    • engineering controls (quieter machinery, improved building ventilation)
    • modification of work practices (use of safety education and training programs)
    • administrative controls (organization and schedules to reduce erxposure to hazards)  

  51. Occ Disease Prev
    Primary Prevnetion
  52. Personal Protective Equipment
    appartiuses designed to protect employees from serious workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with chemcial, radiological, physical, eletrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards
  53. Primary prevention versus use of PPE
    3 methods of primary prevention are preffered over other methods for protecting workers such as the use of a PPE
  54. Examples of PPE
    • 1) devices to protect against airborne hazards (respirators)
    • 2) devices to protect hearing (ear muffs and plugs)
    • 3) proticetive eyewear ( goggle,s face sheilds, glasses and full-face respirators)
  55. Public Health Surveillance
    surveillance system include the colletion of information about occupational injuries and illness and maintainance of databases on exposures to occupational hazards
  56. US agencies that conduct surveillance
    • NIOSH
    • NCHS
    • BLS
    • OSHA
    • MSHA
  57. Surveillance programs operated by NIOSH
    • NSSP
    • NTOF
    • SENSOR
  58. NCHS
    National Center for Health Statistic 
  59. BLS
    Bureau of labor statistics 
  60. MSHA
    mine safety and health administration
  61. NTOF
    national traumatic occupational fatalities surveillance system 
  62. SENSOR
    state-based entinel event notification system for occupational risks
  63. Exposure limits
    • guildelines and regulation for limiation of workplace exposure to hazardous agents
    • the threhold limit value refers othe airborne concetraion of substance and represents conition under which it is believed that nearly all workers by be unaffected.
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occupational health
2012-12-10 20:07:12

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