chapter 47-49

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chapter 47-49
2012-11-27 21:33:06
chapter 47 49

chapter 47-49
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  1. three layers of the heart are
    pericardium: surrounds the heart

    epicardium: first layer of the heart

    myocardium: middle layer of the heart

    endocardium: form the heart valves
  2. blood flow through the heart begins in the
    right atrium which receives deoxygenated blood from the inferior and superior vena cava
  3. the right atrium contracts and blood passes from the
    tricuspid valve into the right ventricle

    the right ventricle contract and blood passes from the ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary artery
  4. the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood is
    pulmonary artery
  5. oxygenation occurs in the
    lungs and the blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins
  6. the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood
    pulmonary veins
  7. the left atrium contracts and oxygen-rich blood is sent out to the body through the
    aorta the largest artery in the body
  8. SA node is the
    pacemaker of the heart located in the right atrium.

    it starts the contraction of the heartbeat
  9. heart conduction
    • SA node
    • AV node
    • bundle of his
    • purkinje fibers
  10. polarization the heart is
    at rest
  11. contraction of the heart chamber ( atria and the ventricles )  is
  12. atheroma
    buildup in smaller vessels
  13. myocardial ischemia
    occurs when blood flow to your heart muscle is decreased by a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries (coronary arteries). The decrease in blood flow reduces your heart's oxygen supply.
  14. angina pectoris
    pain behind the sternum that can be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin
  15. myocardial infarction
    heart attack

    pain lasts longer than 30 minutes and is unrelieved by rest or nitroglycerin tablets

    ECG 6 to 12 hours after episode

    enzymes are released by the necrotic myocardium and continue to increase for 24 to 49 hours after the MI
  16. diaphoresis
    excessive sweating or profusely sweating
  17. dyspnea
    shortness of breath
  18. secondary hypertension occurs
    because of a diseas process in another body system
  19. primary hypertension idiopathic
    no known cause
  20. congestive heart failure occurs
    when the myocardium is unable to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body

    weakness of the left ventricle from chronic hypertension
  21. heart failure initially occurs
    on one side of the heart followed by the other side
  22. left-sided heart failure is usually caused by
    essential hyperension or left ventricle disease

    causes a backup of blood in the lungs resulting in pulmonary edema

    signs and symptoms

    • dyspnea: dificulty breathing
    • orthopnea: shortness of breath when lying down
    • rales: crackling sound
  23. right-sided heart failure caused by
    back up of blood in the right atrium which prevents complete emptying of the vena cava resulting in systemic edema in leg and feet

    can develop from lung disease
  24. treatment for congestive heart failure
    limit physical acitivity , restrict salt , no smoking , reduce stress and control weight.

    diuretics , ACE inhibitor vasotec , prinivil , zestril , capoten , digoxin , beta-blockers coreg , lopressor , potassium
  25. hypotension
    orthostatic or postural hypotension

    common in elderly

    contribute to falls and injuries
  26. rheumatic heart disease develops because
    unusal immune reaction that occurs approximately 2 weeks after an untreated beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection
  27. pericarditis
    pericarditis: sac surrounding the heart is inflammed

    endocarditis: inflammed inside the lining of the heart virus
  28. valvular disorder
    disorder of the valves of the heart may be caused by a congenital defect or an infection

    • valve stenosed
    • mitral valve prolapse
  29. arteries carries
    oxygenated blood away from the heart
  30. capillaries are
    microscopic vessels responisble for the exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tissue
  31. veins carry
    deoxygenated blood back to the heart
  32. shock
    collapse of the circulatory system includes decrease cardiac output , hypotension , and hypoxemia

    signs: extreme thirtness , restlessness , irriablity

    body attempt to compensate with vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels causing cooling , clammy skin tachycardia, decrease in urinary output
  33. types of shock
    cardiogenic: low cardiac output inablitiy of the heart to pump. tooth decay ( MI , pulmonary embolism , CHF)

    hypovolemic: excessive loss of blood decrease volume of blood circulating

    neurogenic- vascular dilation spinal cord injury , stress , drug reaction overdose

    anaphylactic: hypersentivity to an allergan allergic reation

    septic systemic infection:caused by release of bacterial endotoxins throughout the whole body
  34. varicose veins
    dilated , tortuous , superficial veins that develp because the valves do not completely close , allowing blood to flow backward.

    causes the vein to distend form the increased pressure

    caused by congenitally defective valves , pregnancy , obesity , prolonged standing or sitting , heavy lifting
  35. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis

    thrombus with inflammatory changes that has attached to the deep venous system of the lower legs

    causes partial or complete obstruction of vessel

    asymptomatic: calf pain , swelling , warmth , edema , erythema at site
  36. embolus
    thrombus becomes dislodged and begins to circulate through the general circulation

    pulmonary embolism is most serious

    diagnosis: doppler

    treatment: heparin, coumadin , bed rest
  37. arterial disorders
    arteriosclerosis: thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls

    atherosclerosis: formation of an athermoa a build up of cholesterol , cellular debris and platelets along the inside vessel walls
  38. hypercholesterolemia
    diet: reduce saturated fats and foods high in cholesterol

    • aerobic exercise to elevate HDL levels
    • stop smoking
    • statin drugs- lipitor and zocor
  39. aneurysm
    dilation of vessel wall

    Marfan's syndrome
  40. peripheral artery disease
    widespread of atherosclerotic plaque buildup in the arteries outside of the heart
  41. inplantable cardioverter defibrillator ICD
    pager size device implanted in the chest under the skin and attached to the heart with small wires

    continuously monitory heart rhythm and deliver electric shock to correct life-threating arrhythmias
  42. chordae tendineae
    the tendons that anchor the cusps of the heart valves to the papillary muscles of the myocardium preventing valvular prolapse
  43. intermittent claudication
    recurring cramping in the calves caused by poor circulation of blood to the muscles of the lower leg
  44. marfan syndrome
    an inherited condition characterized by elongation of the bones joints hypermobility abnormalities of the eyes and the development of an aortic aneurysm
  45. scleroderma
    an autoimmune disorder that affects the blood vessels and connective tissue causing fibrous degeneration of the major organs
  46. the heart is divided into 4 chambers
    atria: top chamber receive blood

    ventricles: the bottom chambers pump blood out
  47. the flow of blood through the heart
    begins in the right atrium which receives deoxygenated  blood from the inferior and superior venae cavae.

    the atria contract and blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.

    then ventricles contract and blood right venticle into the to the lungs via pulmonary artery

    oxygenated blood returns to the left atria through the pulmonary veins

    atria contracts blood passes through the mitral ( bicuspid ) valve into the left ventricle

    the ventricle contracts and oxygen-rich blood sent through out the body through the aorta
  48. aorta
    largest artery in the body
  49. repolarization
    a period of electric recovery
  50. technician will usually work from the patient's
    left side