solid and liquid wastes

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  1. prob caused by growing volume of waste
    • difficulties in disposal
    • dump sites being used up
    • increases in pollution of aquativc environments
    • increases in costs of disposal
  2. What are solid wastes? types (4)
    • solid waste
    • municipal solid waste
    • hazardous
    • special
  3. Solid Wastes-human made
    include:___ like... and ___ items...
    • refuse- garbage, rubbish, ashes food, papers, plastic bags etc, beverages cans, yard work trimming
    • large items: old car, refridgerator, TV, computers, not easily disposed** repairs cost too much money 
    • -regulation body- state/local goverment
  4. Components of the MSW Streams
    • packaging
    • furnature
    • clothing
    • bottles
    • food waste
    • papers
    • batteries
    • organic
  5. beverage cans per day
    200 million 
  6. paper waste
    70 lbs per year
  7. Municipal Solid Waste
    • this is trash or garbage
    • between 1960 and 2009 the US residents, businesses, and institutions generated approximately 243 million tons of MSW before recyclings
  8. MSW generation rates 60-2009
    steady increase until real recently

    yellow line individual people generat... by year 2008 it started to reduce a little bit ( have to consider population increase and stuff) 
  9. Total MSW generation in 2009 (243 million tons )
    • we use a lot of paper! (265)
    • food storage (14.1) 
    • Yard trimmings ( 13.7%) 
    • Plastic
  10. Solid waste- storage
    • home - wastepaper baskets in bath and bed, garbage/rubbish from food preparation
    • others- larger solid waste outside for central storage
    • 20-30 gallon garbage
    • dumpsters-large-volume, non-compacting bulk receptacles
  11. Solid waste collection
    • to be colleted once per week or 2x
    • private collector
    • local government owned and financed op
    • collection vehicles
  12. 4 dimensions of MSW disposal
    • recycling
    • landfilling
    • composting
    • combustion
  13. major components of MSW management
    • to make energy
    • to recycle
    • landfilling
  14. EPAs hierarchy for management of MSW
    (3) from more to favored to less favored
    • source reduction
    • recycling
    • disposal
  15. 2 important components: Source reductions
    • reducing the amount of waste created 
    • reusing whenever possible
  16. waste reduction aims to reduce the amt produced at source
    2. waste recycling refers to the reuse of materials in the waste
  17. programs for recycing (9)
    • reuse center
    • grass recycling
    • home composting:
    • pay as you throw
    • business recycling
    • business composting
    • drop off ceneter
    • yard trimming pick ups
    • home recycling pick up
  18. recycling is defined by the EPA as...
    the EPA defines recycling (reuse) as the process of minimizing waste generation by recovering and reprocessing usable products that might otherwise beome waste (i.e. recycling of aluminum cans, paper, bottles etc.)
  19. Advantages of recycling (7)
    • opens up new manufacturing employment opportunities
    • reduces emissions of greenhouse gases
    • prevents pollution generated by the use of new materials
    • decreases the amount of materials shipped to landfills
    • reduced the need for landfiulling and incineration
    • preserves /conserves raw materials and natural resources
    • help sustain the environment for future generations
  20. MSW recycling rates 60-2009
    gone up
  21. recycling rates of selected products in 2009
    batteries is the best so far---!

    look at the slides
  22. waste minimization
    initially viewed as...
    + for now because (3) 
    • initially viewed as a regulartory burden
    • positively considered now for 3 reasons: it makes disposal inherently safer, it reduces overall cost
    • it reduces consumption and more efficient use of raw materials -cost savings
  23. composting
    • the aerobic biological
    • decomposition of organic materials [e.g., leaves, grass,
    • and food scraps] to produce a stable
    • humus- like product….Biodegradation is a natural, ongoing biological process that is a
    • common occurrence in both human-made and natural environments.”
  24. composting produces
    • Produces a
    • useful material that resembles soil and that
    • can be used in gardening.
  25. 3 types of composting
    • 1. windrow- a sludge/refuse mixture configured in a long rows (windorws) that are aretaed by convention air movenment in
    • 2. Static Pile -A stationary mixture is aerated by a forced aeration system installed under the pile.
    • 3. In vessel composing - composing takes
    • place in enclosed containers where environmental condition can be controlled.
  26. wind-row on a farm
    • •  Increases soil fertility
    • and soil digestion
    •   Increases microbial activity and organic matter content of soil
    • •  Provides high humus levels
    • •  Suppresses weed growth
    • •  Alters soil to have a positive effect against insects and pests
    • •  Improves buffering capacity (neutralizes pH in the
    • soil)
    • •  Neutralizes harmful  compounds
    • •  Converts and stores excess nutrients in a
    • plant-friendly manner
    • •  Reduces leaching
    • •  Infiltration of water is improved
  27. aerated static pile layout on a farm
    pciture here
  28. in vessel composting
  29. in vessel composting flow chart
    flow chart 
  30. composting benefits
    • soil enrichment
    • pollution remdiation
    • pollution prevention
    • economic neent
  31. composting success
    • 1. state of MA has one of the more successful composintg programsin the US
    • Yard and food waste a compostied preventing 37,500 tons of waste from entering the disposal process 
  32. Landfill design
    • a landfill is composed of 4 major parts
    • 1. bottom liner
    • system for collecting leachates
    • a cover
    • an appropriate location that minimizes the contamination of groundwater by materials realeased from the site 
  33. side view of a landfill
    • requirements: (drinking water etc...) 
    • away from the airport
    • away from residential areas 
    • sliding area
  34. how a landfill works
    1. bottom liner is layered with...
    2. holds in...
    3. then they are pumped...
    • bottom liner is layered with a dense clay and sealed witha thick plactic sheeting to contain leaks of hazardous maeraials
    • a flexible membrane liner holds in toxic chemicals that might contaminate groundwater
    • a leachehate sump/pump  collections leachates which then can be subjected to further treatment
  35. how it works continues
    • garbage is piled up in rows
    • bulldozers and rollers compact the garbage
    • at the end of the day the newly added garbage is covered with soil and other mateirals
    • after covered anaerobic bacteria ais in the decomposition of organic materials nad produce methane gas
  36. dangers assoociated with landfills
    • 1. air pollution and ground water contimaination
    • 2. leachates, which may included toxic heavy metals and solvents and cleaning agents
    • gases such as methane
  37. gaseous emissions from landfills
    1. generation of..
    • generation of methane, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases (methane vented from landfiills poses a fire hazard and is a greenhouse gas)
    • VOC emissions ( may cause nearby residents to complain about odors and also may be associated with symptoms of respiratory irritation
  38. incinerations
    can be used to generate energy...
    • 1. can be used to generate energy while at the same time reducing the volume and weight of waste
    • 2. no attempt is made to seperate the trash into components, at the high temperature of incinerating plants, glass and aluminum in the trash melt
    • metals from the residues of combustion can be recycled into scrap metal
    • 3. remaining ash is deposited in landfills
  39. disadvantages of incinerations
    1. 2 broad effects 
    2. 2 types of pollution
    • emissions may be potentially hazardous to human health and the environment
    • toxic materials emitted may cause air pollution or be deposited on the land
  40. trends in the disposal of MSW
    • landfill decreasing
    • combustion iuncreasing
    • and recycled increasing
  41. what is hazardous waste
    -defined HW as TICR
    • RCRA in 1976 (Resource Conservation and
    • Recovery Act)

    Hazardous waste is identified to be Toxic, Ignitable, Corrosive, Reactive/explosive TICR
  42. sources of HW (5)
    • •   Hazardous materials used in the home
    • •   Medical waste
    • •   Industrial hazardous waste
    • •   Radioactive waste
    • •   Mining wastes and extraction wastes
  43. haz mat in home (5)
    • pesticides
    • cleaning products
    • automotive 
    • painting
    • flammable and nonflamm other
  44. industrial haz mats 
    • heavy metals
    • toxic chem
    • solvents
    • residues from pesticides
  45. radioactive waste is spent from _____ ____ and _____ from ________ processing
    spent nuclear fuel and tailings from uranium processing
  46. mining wastes and extraction wastes
    toxic chemical left over from mining operations inclue acids and heavy metals
  47. medical W
    • waste generating in diagnosis 
    • treatment
    • needles
    • blodds
    • immunization
    • research purposes
    • production or testing of biologicals 
    • more than 3.5 million tons are produced annually
  48. scope of HW prob:
    # tons generated worldwide/year
    developing v. developed. 
    • more than 400 million tons are generated WW on annual basis
    • developed countries genreate most HW
    • some devloping nations will take HW for cash payments, this practice may endanger the local population
  49. uncontrolled haz waste sites in the US
    • an est. 40, 000 of these sites have been reported to federal agencies
    • 1,300 sites are on the national priorities list (NPL)
    • superfund legislation mandates the cleanup of HW sites
  50. management of Haz Mats  and Wastes:
    1. s
    2. t.
    3. d
    • storage at waste transfer stations (containers, tanks, containment buildings
    • treatment ( chemical, physical & biologicl treatments, incinerations) 
    • disposal practice ( landfilling, injection wells, incinerations)
  51. treatment and disposal of HW
    • combustion or incinerations
    • land disposal
    • landfills
    • surface impoundments
    • waste piles
    • land treatment units
    • injection wells
  52. impacts of uncontrolled  sites (4) 
    • 1. potential adverse human health effects
    • 2. high costs of cleanup
    • 3. reductions in property values
    • 4. potential ecological damage
  53. love canal
    • was the former site for disposal of toxic wastes
    • later used for residential construction
    • became IDd with hazardous chemical exposures and thier possible harmful influences on human health
    • led t othe creation of the superfund
Card Set:
solid and liquid wastes
2012-12-10 04:16:05

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