Pharmacy Practice

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alvo2234
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185523
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Pharmacy Practice
Updated:
2012-11-26 22:44:14
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final exam
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Pharmacy practice final
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  1. Dietary Refernce Intakes (DRIs)  four reference categories:
    • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)
    • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
    • Adequate Intakes (AIs)
    • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
  2. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  3. Water Soluble Vitamins
    • B-complex (riboflavin, thiamin, B6, B12)
    • niacin
    • pantothenic acid
    • biotin 
    • folic acid
  4. Fat soluble vitamin absorption
    absorbed in the lymphatc system of small intestine and passed into the general circulation.
  5. Fat soluble vitamins storage
    stored in the body tissue; excessive quantities may be toxic
  6. Water soluble vitamins storage and excretion
    NOT stored in the body and they are excreted in the urine
  7. Vitamin A compounds include:
    retinoids and carotenoids
  8. Vitamin A absorption
    • occures in the intestine in the form of active vitamin A
    • Carotenoids, Lutein, and lycopene do not convert to active Vitamin A
  9. Vitamin A storage
    stored in the liver
  10. Vitamin K uses
    essential for normal growth and reproduction, normal skeletal and tooth development and proper functioning of most organs of the body (conjunctiva, retina, and cornea of the eye)

    required for maintaining epithelial cell mucous secretions which act as the body barrier
  11. Drugs which cause Vitamin A malabsorption
    • Neomycin 
    • Cholestyramine
    • Orlistat (Alli)
  12. Manifestation of Vitamin A deficiency
    • night blindness 
    • follicular hyperkeratosis
    • loss of appetite
    • imparired taste and smell
    • impaired equilibrium
  13. Caution of Vitamin A
    caution with smokers cause increase the risk of cancer and caution with pregnancy
  14. Vitamin A toxicity
    • Headach
    • diplopia
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • vertigo
    • fatigue
    • drowsiness
  15. Vitamin D natural form
    cholecalciferol
  16. Vitamin D synthesis
    synthesized in the skin from endogenous or dietary cholesterol on exposure to ultraviolet radiation
  17. Vitamin D activation
    • requires both the liver and kidneys
    • 25 OH Vit D is formed by the liver and then hydroxylated by the kidney to 1, 25 Di OH Vit D (active form)
  18. Vitamin D properties 
    has both hormone and vitamin properties
  19. Excess of Vit D can lead to:
    • Anorexia
    • hypercalcemia
    • soft tissue calcification
    • kidney stones
    • renal failure
    • cancer (breast, esophageal, prostate, and pancreatic)
  20. Cause of Vit D
    • inadequate intake
    • GI disease
    • chronic renal failure
    • inadequate sunlight exposure
    • Vit D metabolism disorder
    • long-term phenytoin therapy
  21. Vitamin D deficiency leads to 
    Rickets, bad bone formation, osteoporosis
  22. Vitamin E refers to:
    Tocopherols and tocotrienols
  23. Vitamin E functions as
    antioxidant which protects cellular membranes from oxidative damage
  24. Vitamin E plays a role in 
    • heme biosynthesis
    • steroid metabolism 
    • collagen formation
  25. Vitamin E deficiency is rare due to 
    polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet
  26. Vitamin enhances affects of
    Warfarin by inducing the vitamin K deficiency
  27. Vitamin C is necessary for:
    biosynthesis of hydroxyproline which is precursor of collagen, osteoid, and dentin
  28. Vitamin C assists with
    absorption of nonheme iron from food by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron
  29. Deficiency of Vitamin C include
    • fatigue
    • capillary hemorrhages and petechiae
    • swollen hemorrhagic gums 
    • bone changes
    • imparied wound healing
    • scurvy
  30. amount of Vit C that prevents scurvy
    10mg
  31. Vitamin C intake for smokers
    required to have 100-125mg due to daily ascorbic acid losses
  32. High doses of Vit C used for wound healing can cause
    • nausea
    • stomach cramping
    • diarrhea
    • nephorlithiasis
  33. toxicity occurs in Vitamin C through
    deficiency in G-6-P
  34. caution of Vit C in pregnancy
    combo with Vit E can lead to fetal loss
  35. Vitamin B 12
    • Cyanocobalamin 
    • most complex vitamin
    • most stable
  36. Vitamin B 12 active locations
    active in all cells (bone marrow, CNS, GI)
  37. Vitamin B 12 is necessary for
    • metabolism of lipids and formation of myelin
    • methylation reactions and cell division
  38. cause of vitamin B 12 deficiency
    • poor absorption
    • utilization 
    • increase excretion
  39. length required for Vitamin B 12 deficiency 
    3 years (3 months for people using Metformin)
  40. Vitamin B 12 deficiency symptoms
    • macrocytic anemia
    • GI
    • neurological symptoms
  41. Hydroxyocobalamin
    longer acting form of cyanobobalamin
  42. Vitamin B 6 forms
    • pyridoxine (most used)
    • Pyridoxal
    • Pyridoxamine
  43. Vitamin B 6 used for the treatment of 
    • Carpal tunnel
    • PMS
    • depression
    • migraine
  44. Vitamin B 6 deficiency is caused by
    • alcoholism
    • severe diarrhea
    • malabsorption
    • drugs (isoniazid and penicillamine)
    • genetic disease (cystathioninuria and xanthinuric aciduria)
  45. Vitamin B 6 symptoms
    • pellagra-like dermatitis
    • oral lesions
    • peripheral neuropathy
    • scaliness around the nose, mouth, and eyes
    • dulling of mentation
  46. Vitamin B 6 side effects 
    • convulsions
    • peripheral neuritis
    • sideroblastic anemia
  47. Vitamin B2 uses
    • essential for cellular growth
    • maitenance of vision
    • mucous membranes, skin, nails, and hair
    • functions as coenyme
  48. Vitamin B2 deficiency symptoms include:
    • ocular symptoms
    • blurred vision
    • itching
    • watering eyes
  49. Vitamin B1 uses
    • myocardial function
    • nerve cell formation
    • carbohydrate metabolism
  50. Vitamin B1 deficiency occurs with 
    alcoholism, malabsorption, diarrhea, chronic use of furosemide
  51. Vitamin B1 deficiency manifestation
    • Beriberi
    • neuromuscular symptoms
    • Wernicke's encephalopathy
    • Cardiac dysfunction

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