Biology Comp Final

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toribloom
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Biology Comp Final
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2012-12-03 12:45:08
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  1. From Kansas to central Indiana to Pennsylvania, many people believe that they have water moccasins (also called "cottonmouths") in their ponds. Some assert they have seen them, although they are certainly not so foolish as to try to capture one alive. Meanwhile, the fish and game offices and the range maps in the herpetology books indicate that this poisonous snake does not breed this far north. What is the most scientific attitude to assume on this issue? A. Observations by both the public and the fish and game officers are subjective so this is not easily resolved objectively.B. A simple field trip to the pond locations-that resulted in the capture and confirmation of the identity of the snakes-would settle the matter.C. Scientific books with range maps are based on field research and, therefore, determine the truth in this case.D. Because living organisms are active, scientific theories in biology always change.
    B. A simple field trip to the pond locations-that resulted in the capture and confirmation of the identity of the snakes-would settle the matter.
  2. The alpha helix and beta sheet are found at which level of protein organization?
    A. primary structure
    B. secondary structure
    C. tertiary structure
    D. quaternary structure
    B. secondary structure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which term refers to the attraction to water molecules?
    A. hydrophilic
    B. hydrolysis
    C. Nitrophylic
    D. hydrophobic
    A. hydrophilic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following does NOT represent homeostasis? 
    A. Energy is captured by plants, then transferred to consumers and decomposers, and eventually lost as heat.
    B. Feelings of hunger and then fullness affect the length of time and quantity of food you eat, keeping your weight near a "set point."
    C. Sensors detect CO2 levels in the blood and trigger an increase or decrease in the rate of breathing.
    D. Cells adjusting the openings on the bottom of leaves respond to differences in water stress in order to maintain moisture inside the leaf.
    E. When body temperature drops, you shiver to generate heat; when your body heats up, you sweat and the evaporation cools you.
    A. Energy is captured by plants, then transferred to consumers and decomposers, and eventually lost as heat.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following features are present at the exosystem level?
    A. Energy flow that begins at the producer level.
    B. chemical cycling through the food chain
    C. all are features of an econsystem
    D. input of solar energy
    E. complex interactions between a variety of populations.
    C. all are features of an ecosystem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. A lipid is a polymer made up of which kind of monomers?
    A. glucose or modified glucose molecules.
    B. nucleotides
    C. amino acids
    D. fatty acids and glycerol
    E. alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    D. fatty acids and glycerol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Choose the correct order of classification from most inclusive to exclusive.
     A. Domain-Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species
    B. Kingdom-Domain-Class-Phylum-Order-Family-Genus-Species
    C. Kingdom-Domain-Class-Phylum-Order-Genus-Species-Family
    D. Kingdom-Class-Phylum-Domain-Genus-Order-Family-Species
    A. Domain-Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species
  8. Organisms belonging to the same _____ would be the most closely related. 
    A. family
    B. kingdom
    C. phylum
    D. order
    E. class
    A. family
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which carbohydrate is used in the liver for energy storage? 
    A. glycogen
    B. chitin
    C. glycerol
    D. cellulose
    E. starch
    A. glycogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following terms best describe the collection of scientific data through observation in the field, such as observing the behavior of birds?
    A. a scientific theory or principle
    B. an experiment
    C. a scientific model
    D. descriptive research
    E. experimental results
    D. descriptive research
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following domains contains the most primitive prokaryotes that live in extreme environments? 
    A. Eukarya
    B. Bacteria
    C. Archaea
    D. Plantae
    E. Fungi
    C. Archaea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The mass number refers to the number of ____ and ____ within an element.
    A. protons and electrons
    B. electrons and atoms
    C protons and neutrons
    D protons and molecules
    E electrons and neutrons
    C. protons and neutrons
  13. A hypothesis is tested by:
    A. a prediction
    B. analysis of results
    C. formation of a theory
    D. experimentation
    D. experimentation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following elements is NOT one of the six most common in living organisms? 
    A. nitrogen
    B. carbon
    C. oxygen
    D. iron
    E. hydrogen
    D. iron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Egg's "dried on" the plate. However, after soaking, they easily wash off. What happened?
    A. the presence or absence of water changes the molecules from hydrophilic to hydrophobic respectively.
    B the addition of water converted organic molecules into inorganic molecules.
    C. Heating denatured the egg protein molecules, hydrolysis reactions then formed bonds in the dried egg, and soaking in water eventually resulted in condensation reactions where water broke these bonds.
    C Heating denatured the egg protein molecules, hydrolysis reactions then formed bonds in the dried egg, and soaking in water eventually resulted in condensation reactions where water broke these bonds.
  16. An orbital is best described as
    A. the electron shell closest to the nucleus
    .B. the outermost electron shell of an atom.
    C. the volume of space in which electrons are most often found.
    D. the original energy level of electrons in photosynthesis.
    C. the volume of space in which electrons are most often found.
  17. Which carbohydrate is found in the exoskeleton of insects and crabs? 
    A. cellulose
    B. chitin
    C. starch
    D. glycogen
    E. glycerol
    B. chitin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. What is the most likely source of oil used in preparing a meal?
    A. melted butter
    B. bees wax distilled down to an oild form
    C. canola or olives
    D. none of these
    E. lard that was left at room temp.
    C. canola or olive
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which statement is NOT true about covalent bonds? 
    A. Shared electrons allow an atom to complete its outer electron shell in a covalent molecule.
    B. Covalent bonds form when an electron is completely lost or gained from an atom.
    C. A pair of electrons is shared between two atoms for each covalent bond.
    D. A single covalent bond is drawn as a line between two atoms.
    E. A covalent molecule contains one or more covalent bonds.
    B. Covalent bonds form when an electron is completely lost or gained from an atom.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The characteristic way in which atoms of an element react is most related to the
     A. number of electrons in the outermost shell.
    B. number of electrons in the innermost shell.
    C. number of neutrons in the nucleus.
    D. size of the nucleus.
    B. number of electrons in the outermost shell.
  21. Which definition best describes a population?
    A. the members of a species in a given area
    B. the region of Earth that contains living organisms
    C. The interaction between the organsims and their environment
    A. The members of a species in a given area.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Prior to prescription medications to control stomach acid and "heart burn" people consumed baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) to decrease their discomfort. This would indicate that sodium bicarbonate 
    A. effectively buffers stomach acid by releasing H+
    B. should be sold as a prescription drug
    C. neutralizes stomach acid by combining with excess H+
    D. blocks acid production by combining with OH-
    C. neutralizes stomach acid by combining with excess H+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. In a water molecule,
    A. unequal sharing of electrons results in a polar molecule.
    B. the oxygen atom is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.
    C. all are correct.
    D. the oxygen atom has an overall negative charge with the hydrogen atoms having an overall positive charge.
    C. all are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. An atom's atomic mass is best described as the mass of 
    A. the protons it contains.
    B. protons and electrons it contains.
    C. electrons in the outermost shell.
    D. protons and neutrons it contains.
    E. the neutrons it contains.
    D. protons and neutrons it contains
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which statement is true about RNA? 
    A. It contains adenine paired to thymine.
    B. It contains the sugar deoxyribose.
    C. It is a double-stranded molecule
    D. One of the bases from DNA is replaced by uracil.
    E. Its nucleotides contain twice as many phosphate groups as DNA's nucleotides.
    D. One of the bases from DNA is replaced by uracil
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What term is used for molecules that have identical molecular formulas but the atoms in each molecule are arranged differently? 
    A. balanced
    B. isomer
    C. isotope
    D. organic
    E. homomolecules
    B. isomer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. If an animal needed to store energy for long-term use, but not be encumbered with the weight of extra tissue, which is the best molecule for storage? 
    A. fructose and glucose in the form of honey
    B. high-calorie fat molecules
    C. complex cellulose molecules
    D. starch
    E. glycogen with extensive side branches of glucose
    B. high-calorie fat molecules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of these statements is NOT true about DNA? 
    A. It forms a double helix.
    B. It contains the sugar ribose.
    C. It is the genetic material of the cell.
    D. The sugar and phosphate groups form the backbone of the molecule.
    E. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine.
    B. It contains the sugar ribose.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. A saturated fat is 
    A. has fatty acids with no double bonds between the carbon atoms.
    B. All of the choices are correct.
    C. solid at room temperature.
    D. is of animal origin.
    B. All of the choices are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Living organisms are characterized by: 
    A. evolving over time.
    B. displaying homeostatic controls.
    C. adapting to the environment.
    D. all of the choices pertain to living organisms.
    D. all of the choices pertain to living organisms.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which of the following concepts is NOT one of the unifying theories of biology? 
    A. All organisms are composed of cells.
    B. Life may arise through spontaneous generation.
    C. All living things have a common ancestor and are adapted to a particular way of life
    D. Organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and, at times, behavior.
    E. Life comes only from life.
    B. Life may arise through spontaneous generation.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. A cell is to a tissue as an atom is to: 
    A. subatomic particle
    B. population
    C. electron
    D. molecule
    D. molecule
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Some members of Daphnia, a water flea, have a genetic mutation that causes them to prefer warmer environments. These members reproduce and pass these genetic changes to their offspring. The next generation will occupy warmer environments not previously occupied by this species. This is an example of:
     A. adaptation
    B. homeostasis
    C. irritability
    D. All of the choices are correct.
    A. adaptation
  34. A researcher reports he has conducted many experiments where a galvanometer (lie detector) was hooked up to detect a plant's responses. He reports that when a spider was released near the plant, the spider's decision to escape was picked up by the plant, "causing a reaction in the leaf." When other researchers repeated the experiment, they could not get any galvanometer responses. The researcher then concluded that plants could be put into a faint by humans. 
    A. This is a justified conclusion from a research design that appears to follow the scientific method.
    B. The design is scientific; it just lacks a hypothesis.
    C. If the researcher has actual numerical counts, this must be accepted as valid science.
    D. Results must be somewhat repeatable and these results that only work for this researcher do not qualify as science.
    E. The only problem with this general research plan is that it lacks a control.
    D. Results must be somewhat repeatable and these results that only work for this researcher do not qualify as science.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. For five years, you wake up before the alarm is set to ring each morning. This leads you to conclude that people have a built-in "alarm clock" capable of waking them up. From a science viewpoint, this conclusion
     A. is science because it is based on real observations
    .B. is science because it is predictive of what will happen tomorrow morning.
    C. is scientifically valid because 5 years x 365 days is a large number of trials.
    D. may not be valid because it generalizes about all people, and there may have been other variables that could awaken you without a built-in clock.
    E. cannot be scientifically treated because it involves human behavior.
    D. may not be valid because it generalizes about all people, and there may have been other variables that could awaken you without a built-in clock.
  36. If the atomic number of an element is 6 and the atomic mass is 12.01, how many protons are there in the nucleus? 
    A. 12
    B. 6
    C. 24
    D. 52
    B 6
  37. Which is NOT true about the electrical charges in chemistry? 
    A. In an atom, the number of protons and neutrons must be equal.
    B. Protons carry a positive charge.
    C. An ion contains one or more positive or negative charges.
    D. An atom is neutral when the positive and negative charges balance.
    A. In an atom, the number of protons and neutrons must be equal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Both 18O and 16O are found in nature. However, 16O is the most common. Therefore, 
    A. only the common form of 16O can bond with hydrogen atoms to form H2O.
    B. 18O is the form of oxygen that provides living cells with life.
    C. these are different elements.
    D. oxygen atoms can have eight or 10 neutrons.
    E. 18O has two additional electrons in its outer shell.
    D. oxygen atoms can have eight or 10 neutrons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which statement is NOT true about ionic bonds? 
    A. An ion has the same number of electrons as a nonionic atom of the same element.
    B. A salt such as NaCl is formed by an ionic reaction.
    C. An ionic bond occurs between positive ions and negative ions.
    D. One atom acts as an electron donor and another atom acts as an electron acceptor.
    E. Electrons are completely lost or gained in ion formation.
    A. An ion has the same number of electrons as a nonionic atom of the same element
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. As a solid, water floats. This means that 
    A. solid water is less dense than liquid water.
    B. organisms in ponds, lakes, and reservoirs can survive under the ice cover.
    C. All of the choices are correct.
    D. this is due to hydrogen bonding changes.
    C. All of the choices are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. A solution with a pH of 7.0 has _______ times ________ H+ than a solution of pH 10. 
    A. 10³; more
    B. 10-³; less
    C. 30; more
    D. 300; less
    E. none of the above
    A. 10³; more
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following organisms is NOT ultimately dependent on the sun as a source of energy? 
    A. A night-blooming flower is pollinated by night-flying bats.
    B. An underground earthworm avoids the sun.
    C. A cave fish feeds on debris that washes down to it
    .D. All of the choices ARE ultimately dependent on the sun.
    E. All of the choices are NOT ultimately dependent on the sun.
    D. All of the choices ARE ultimately dependent on the sun.
  43. Which of the following is NOT a protein function?
    A. defense
    B. transportation
    C motion
    D insulation
    E support
    D insulation
  44. A polypeptice has an amino acid sequence of: alanine-leucine-tryptophane-glycien-valine-alanine This chain of amino acids is further organized into a helix that in-turn, folds in and around itself to form a globular structure. The primary structure of this polypeptide is: 
    A. pleated-sheet
    B. alpha helix
    C. globular
    D. alanine-leucine-tryptophane-glycien-valine-alanine
    D. alanine-leucine-tryptophane-glycien-valine-alanine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. A polysaccharide is a polymer made up of which kind of monomers? 
    A. nucleotides
    B. fatty acids and glycerol
    C. simple sugars
    D. alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    E. amino acids
    C. simple sugars
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which property of water allows it to act as a transport medium?
    A. high heat capacity
    B. cohesion
    C. high heat of evaporation
    B. cohesion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following protein structures is exemplified by globular proteins?
    A. tertiary
    B quaternary
    C secondary
    D primary
    A. tertiary
  48. Unsaturated fats have double bonds. True/false
    true
  49. After being formed by the ribosomes located on the endoplasmic reticulum, what is the next organelle to which a protein could be transported? 
    A. Golgi apparatus
    B. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    C. nucleus
    D. mitochondria
    A. Golgi apparatus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which is NOT true about the cell theory?
     A. Its various parts were described by Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow.
    B. It states that all organisms are composed of cells.
    C. It states that all cells come from preexisting cells.
    D. It states that bacteria and other small organisms can arise spontaneously.E. It is accepted today by biologists as applying to virtually all forms of life.
    D. It states that bacteria and other small organisms can arise spontaneously.
  51. Which of the following gives rise to both lysosomes and vesicles?
    A. ribosomes
    B. mitochondria
    C. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    D. Golgi apparatus
    D. Golgi apparatus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which statement is NOT true about bacteria? 
    A. Bacteria contain membrane bound organelles.
    B. Some are motile due to flagella.
    C. Some are photosynthetic.
    D. All bacteria are prokaryotes.E. Bacteria have a cell wall that contains peptidoglycan.
    A. Bacteria contain membrane bound organelles.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which is a true statement about ribosomes?
     A. Ribosomes contain DNA and protein.
    B. Ribosomes are active in carbohydrate synthesis.
    C. Ribosomal subunits leave the nucleus after being formed by the nucleolus.
    D. Polyribosomes are the subunits of ribosomes
    .E. Ribosomes are only found associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in prokaryotic cells.
    C. Ribosomal subunits leave the nucleus after being formed by the nucleolus.
  54. Without a cytoskeleton, eukaryotic cells would NOT 
    A. communicate with adjacent cells.
    B. have an efficient way to transport materials from one organelle to another.
    C. have an efficient means of metabolism.
    D. synthesize protein.
    B. have an efficient way to transport materials from one organelle to another
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Membrane-bounded vesicles that contain enzymes for oxidizing small organic molecules with the formation of hydrogen peroxide are 
    A. vacuoles.
    B. vesicles.
    C. glyoxisomes.
    D. lysosomes
    .E. peroxisomes.
    E. peroxisomes.
  56. All cells have these two characteristics: 
    A. contain DNA in the nucleus and have a plasma membrane
    B. produce a cell wall outside of the plasma membrane
    C. have a plasma membrane and ribosomes in the cytoplasm
    D. contain mitochondria and chloroplasts
    C. have a plasma membrane and ribosomes in the cytoplasm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Why is a large surface area: volume ratio needed for cells to function properly? 
    A. A smaller surface area allows the cell to increase its metabolic activity by bringing in even more nutrients than larger surface areas.
    B. Adequate surface area (plasma membrane) is needed to furnish nutrients to and expel wastes from the volume (cytoplasm).
    C. Smaller volumes reduce and larger surface areas reduce the cell's ability to bring nutrients in and get rid of waste.
    D. The surface area and volume increase at the rate to ensure cell growth and reproduction.
    B. Adequate surface area (plasma membrane) is needed to furnish nutrients to and expel wastes from the volume (cytoplasm).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. The cells that line our respiratory tract, and one-celled paramecia both have these short hair-like projections. 
    A. microfilaments
    B. centrioles
    C. pili
    D. flagella
    E. cilia
    E. cilia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Proteins in a membrane are: 
    A. All of the choices are correct.
    B. peripheral if they are on the inside surface held in place by the cytoskeleton.
    C. integral if they are embedded in the membrane and protrude from both surfaces of the bilayer
    D. integral if they protrude from only one surface of the bilayer.
    A. All of the choices are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Active transport 
    A. requires an input of ATP.
    B. occurs in osmosis and facilitated transport.
    C. is involved in diffusion.
    D. All of the choices are correct.
    A. requires an input of ATP.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following is true with respect to plant cell walls?
     A. They contain n-acetylglutamic acid.
    B. They all have secondary cell walls to some extent.
    C. There is a greater amount of cellulose in secondary cell walls than in primary cell walls.
    D. Lignin is found in primary cell walls of plants.
    C. There is a greater amount of cellulose in secondary cell walls than in primary cell walls.
  62. In a phospholipid bilayer, the 
    A. phosphate heads are oriented toward the exterior of the cell or toward the cytoplasm.
    B. fatty acid tails are hydrophilic.
    C. fatty acid tails are ionized.
    D. phosphate groups are hydrophobic.
    E. proteins are located only between the two layers.
    A. phosphate heads are oriented toward the exterior of the cell or toward the cytoplasm.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Which statement is true about the plasma membrane? 
    A. The proteins make up the matrix of the membrane.
    B. Movement of proteins and phospholipids can occur sideways within the plane of the membrane.
    C. The fluid nature of the membrane is regulated by flip-flopping of the phospholipids from one side of the membrane to the other.
    D. The model can be likened to a sandwich where phospholipids are like the bread and proteins are like the filling.
    B. Movement of proteins and phospholipids can occur sideways within the plane of the membrane.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. Red blood cells come in many "blood types" including type A, type B, type AB, type O [lacking proteins A and B], Rh positive, and Rh negative [lacking Rh+] and many others. If blood is transfused, the recipient detects any new or "foreign" proteins. These blood type proteins are A. in the plasma where they have been secreted by the red blood cells.
    B. inside the red blood cell cytoplasm.
    C. on the outer surface of the red blood cell membrane.
    D. evenly distributed throughout the cell contents and plasma.
    E. in the red blood cell nucleus.
    C. on the outer surface of the red blood cell membrane.
  65. Whether a molecule can cross the plasma membrane depends upon 
    A. the shape of the molecule.
    B. the charge of the molecule.
    C. the chemical properties of the molecule.
    D. the size of the molecule.
    E. All of the choices are correct.
    E. All of the choices are correct.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Which is the best definition of osmosis?
     A. The movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration.
    B. The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
    C. The movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration.
    D. The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower water concentration to an area of higher water concentration.
    E. The movement of a substance against its concentration gradient through the release of energy from ATP.
    B. The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
  67. Freshwater protozoans react to a/an _____ environment by removing water through _____. 
    A. hypotonic, turgor pressure
    B. hypotonic, a contractile vacuole
    C. isotonic, a contractile vacuole
    D. hypertonic, turgor pressure
    E. hypertonic, a contractile vacuole
    B. hypotonic, a contractile vacuole
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Which of the following is NOT associated with animal cells? A. an extracellular matrix
    B. plasmodesmata
    C. gap junctions
    D. adhesion junctions (desmosomes)
    E. tight junctions
    B. plasmodesmata
  69. Having similar ____________ would allow tissues and organs to be transplanted easily. 
    A. cell recognition proteins
    B. all of the choices are involved in tissue transplantation
    C. carbohydrate chains in the cell membrane
    D. major histocompatibility complex proteins
    B. all of the choices are involved in tissue transplantation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Which is the best definition of active transport?
     A. movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration
    B. movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
    C. movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration
    D. movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower water concentration to an area of higher water concentration
    E. movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP
    E. movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP
  71. Eukaryotic cells are substantially larger than bacterial cells and average over 20 times more volume-per-surface-area than bacterial cells. How can the eukaryotic cell membrane provide this higher rate of exchange of materials?
     A. Plasma membrane folds increase the surface area.
    B. Carrier proteins speed the rate at which a solute crosses the plasma membrane in the direction of decreasing concentration.
    C. Mitochondria are concentrated near membranes to provide energy for active transport of molecules or ions.
    D. Large molecules are engulfed by vesicle formation.
    E. All of the choices are correct.
    E. All of the choices are correct.
  72. If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which will occur? 
    A. Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
    B. Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
    C. None of the choices will occur.
    D. Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
    E. Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
    E. Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. which organelle is primarily responsible for the breakdown of lipids within the cell?
    A. golgi apparatus
    B. vacuole
    C. chloroplast
    D. peroxisome
    D. peroxisome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. which cell junction is unique to animals?
    A. desmosomes
    B. all are unique to animals
    C. gap
    D. tight
    C. gap
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. which of the following products are unique to vacuoles?
    A. water
    B. sugar
    C. water-soluble pigments
    D. all are found in vacuoles
    D all are found in vacuoles
  76. The newly discovered membrane channel protein that accounts for why water can cross a membrane more quickly than expected is: 
    A. The sodium-potassium pump
    B. Integrin
    C. ATP synthetase
    D. Aquaporin
    D. Aquaporin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Chloroplasts are to ____________ as ___________ are to aerobic respiration?
    1. thylakoid membranes, matrix
    2. protein synthesis, lysosomes
    3. stroma, cristae
    4. photosynthesis, mitochondria
    4. Photosynthesis, mitochondria
  78. Which type of junction will create a solid barrier to prevent molecules from moving between the cells?
    A. desmosomes
    B. gap
    C. tight
    D. plasmodesmata
    C. tight
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. What type of transport mechanism is required to move sodium ions against their concentration gradient?
    A. diffusion
    B. osmosis
    C. Active
    D. passive
    C. active
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. DNA is housed within the nucleus, but the mRNA code needs to leave in order to be translated into protein. How does the mRNA code leave the nucleus if the nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope?
    A. A vesicle will bud off 
    B. Nuclear envelope dissolves
    C. the nuclear envelope contains pores that allow the mRNA to exit.
    C. The nuclear envelope contains pores that allow the mRNA to exit.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. which of the following is the reason plants wilt if they are watered with a salt solution?
    A to protect its leaves.
    B. increase in turgor pressure
    C. salt weakens the plant cell walls.
    D. loss of water due to the salt solution resulting in a decrease in turgor pressure.
    D loss of water due to the salt solution resulting in a decrease in turgor pressure.
  82. What is the smallest unit of living matter?
    A atom
    B golgi apparatus
    C nucleus
    D element
    E cell
    E cell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Which process is responsible for moving cellular wastes across the cell membrane?
    A pinocytosis
    B receptor-mediated endocytosis
    C exocytosis
    D endocytosis
    C exocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. during the sequencing of DNA into a protein, what is the first step?
    A a ribosome attaches to the mRNA and signals protein synthesis
    B SRP binds to the signal peptide to shut down synthesis
    C an enzyme removes the signal peptide from the peptide chain
    D mRNA is copied from a gene
    D mRNA is copied from a gene
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. If a living plant were moved from a freshwater aquarium to a saltwater aquarium, which of the following would occur?
    A the plant's cells would take on water and will lyse.
    B the plant's cells would lose water and plasmolysis would occur.
    C nothing
    D the plant's cells would take on ions
    B the plant's cells would lose water and plasmolysis would occur.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. If a researcher was interested in slowing down the movement of amoebas by disrutping their cell membranes, which protein filaments should be studied?
    A intermediates
    B actin
    C microtubules
    D myosin
    B actin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Which cell junction will allow the movement of molecules between two plant cells?
    A gap
    B plasmodesmata
    C adhesion
    D tight
    B plasmodesmata
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  88. Know which is hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic. 
    They describe the solution not the cell.
  89. Which of the following is unique to bacterial cells?
    A nucleoid region
    B cell membrane
    C cell wall
    D nucleus
    A nucleoid region
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. According to the endosymbiosis theory ____ were engulfed by larger eukaryotic cells.
    A ribosomes
    B lysosomes
    C mitochondria
    D golgi apparatus
    C mitochondria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

  91. be able to identify
    • cocci- looks like OOOs
    • Bacilli- ll look long skinny

  92. be able to identify
    inner membrane
    matrix
    cristae
    intermembrane space
    outer membrane
  93. Which statement is NOT true about the noncyclic electron pathway?
    a. Electrons are boosted to higher energy level in Photosystem I. 
    b. Sunlight excites electrons in Photosystem II. 
    c. It produces ATP. 
    d. It produces NADPH.
     e. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.
    e. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.
  94. Which substrate is missing: 6CO2 + _____ + energy= C6H12O6 + 6O2
    A. 6H20
    B  4H2O
    C 4O2
    D glucose
    A 6H2O
  95. Which of the following substrates are required to run cellular respiration?
    A glucose & oxygen
    B glucose & carbon dioxide
    C energy & glucose
    D sunlight & oxygen
    A glucose & oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. Which of the following is a CAM plant?
    A rice
    B oak tree
    C corn
    D wheat
    E cactus
    E cactus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Which process reduces molecular oxygen to water?
    A glycolysis
    B citric acid cycle
    C the preparatory reaction
    D fermentation
    E electron trasnport system
    E electron transport system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. The first phase of aerobic cellular respiration is:
    citric acid cycle
    glycolysis
    electron transport system
    fermentation
    the preparatory reaction
    glycolysis
  99. What organisms are capable of photosynthesis?
    A plants and algae
    B plants only
    C plants and some bacteria
    D plants, algae, and some bacteria
    D plants, algae, and some bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. Which process produces alcohol or lactate?
    A glycolysis
    B fermentation
    C preparatory reaction
    D citric acid cycle
    E ETS
    B fermentation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. Currently accepted theory of how an enzyme and its substrate fit together?
    A as the product is released, the enxyem breaks down.
    B as the sybstrate binds to the enzyme, the shape of the active site changes to accommodate the reaction.
    B as the sybstrate binds to the enzyme, the shape of the active site changes to accommodate the reaction.
  102. The membrane protein (enzyme) _____ will transform ADP+P > ATP as H+ flow dow a gradient from the intermemebrane space inot the matrix.
    A sodium potassium pump
    B ATP synthase
    C cholesterol
    D NADH-Q reductase
    ATP synthase
  103. Which of these processes occur in the cytosol?
    citric acid cycle
    glycolysis
    ETS
    preparatory reaction
    glycolysis
  104. What statement is NOT true about the effects of various conditions on the activity of an enzyme?
    a) higher temperatures generally increase the activity of an enzyme up to a point
    b) above a certain range of temperatures the protein of an enzyme up to a point
    c) a change inpH can cause an enzyme to be inactivated
    d)an enzyme's activity is generally reduced by an increase in substrate concentration
    e) when sufficient substrate is available, the active site will nearly always be occupied
    d)an enzyme's activity is generally reduced by an increase in substrate concentration
  105. To what does the term stroma refer?
    The double membrane of the chloroplast
    a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
    astack of thylakoid membrane structures
    the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
    the cytochrom system in the membranes of the thylakoids
    The central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
  106. what is the correct summary for the energy investment vs. energy harvesting steps of glycolysis?
    A 2 ATP are invested and 4 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP
    B 2 ATP are invested and no ATP are harvested to produce a net lose of 2 ATP
    A 2 ATP are invested and 4 ATP are harvested to produce a net gain of 2 ATP
  107. Which process produces both NADH and FADH2?
    A citric acid cycle
    B glycolysis
    C ETS
    D fermentation
    E preparatory reaction
    citric acid cycle
  108. What are the end products of photosynthesis?
    A Carbon dioxide & energy
    B glucose & ATP
    C carbon dioxide & water
    D glucose & oxygen
    D Glucose & oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. During the light reactions what structure is responsible for absorbing the solar energy?
    A stroma
    B bark of the tree
    C chloroplast
    D stoma
    C chloroplast
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. The carbon dioxide we exhale is produced in 
    A citric acid cycle
    B electron transport system
    C lactate fermentation
    D glycolysis
    B the electron transport system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. Endergonic reactions:
    A have a negative ^G and occur spontaneously.
    B have products with less free energy than the reactants
    C can only occur if there is an input of energy.
    D release energy
    E all of the above
    C can only occur if there is an input of energy.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. What structure is required for an organsm to be classified as an autotroph?
    A nucleus
    B mitochondria
    C Golgi body
    D chloroplast
    D chloroplast
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. The function of sunlight in photosynthesis is to:
    A fix O2 in the Calvin cycle
    B excite electrons in chlorophyll
    C combine carbon dioxide and water to form ATP and NADPH
    D reduce NADPH to NADP
    B excited electrons in chlorophyll
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. The subunits from which ATP is made are:
    A ADP and Phosphate
    B FAD and NAD+
    C FAD and NADPH
    D ADP and FAD
    ADP and phosphate
  115. A coenzyme is
    A an ionic cofactor that interacts with an enzyme to allow it to work.
    B a nonprotein organic cofactor that interacts with an enzyme to allow it to work.
    B a nonprotein organic cofactor that interacts with an enzyme to allow it to work.
  116. Which best describes the second law of thermodynamics?
    A Energy can be created from matter or used to produce matter.
    B some useful energy is lost as heat whenever an energy trasfer occurs.
    B some useful energy is lost as heat whenever an energy trasfer occurs.
  117. Which best describes the first law of thermodynamics?
    A energy is not created nor destroyed, but it can change from one energy form to another.
    B energy is changed from one form to another with a loss of usable energy.
    A energy is not created nor destroyed, but it can change from one energy form to another.
  118. A product of photosynthesis, ____ is the chief source of energy for most organsms.
    A sucrose
    B oxygen
    C glucose
    D all of the above
    C glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. Which organelles contain functioning ATP synthetase complexes in their membranes?
    A golgi complexis and lysosomes
    B mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum
    C endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles
    D mitochondria and chloroplasts
    D Mitochondria and chloroplasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. Which is most closely associated with the Calvin Cycle?
    A carbon dioxide production
    B removal of electrons from water for passage through an electron transport system
    C oxygen production
    D carbon dioxide fixation
    E ATP production
    D carbon dioxide fixation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. Why are plants green?
    A they absorb only green wavelengths of light
    B they reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.
    C they absorb only yellow and blue wavelengths of light
    B  they reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. The correct sequence for aerobic metabolic breakdown of glucose is:
    A glycolysis- preparatory reaction- citric acid cycle- elextron trasnport system
    B Prep reaction- glycolysis- electron transport- citric acid cycle
    A  glycolysis- preparatory reaction- citric acid cycle- elextron trasnport system
  123. Energy coupling of endergonic and exergonic reactions within cells
    A all of the choices are correct
    B uses heat released by one reaction to fuel the other reaction
    C utilizes ATP to carry energy between the exergonic and endergonic reactions.
    D permits miological reactions to proceed at termperatures consistent with life.
    A all of the choices are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. What are the end products of photosynthesis?
    A oxygen and carbs
    B carbs and water
    C water and carbon dioxide
    D water and oxygen
    A oxygen and carbs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. Adult humans cannot synthesize _____ out of the ____ common amino acids.
    A half; all
    B eleven; twenty
    C nine; twenty
    D any; twenty
    E nine; eleven
    C nine; twenty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. The preparatory reaction breaks
    A pyruvates into glucose
    B pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and water
    C pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide
    D acetyl CoA into pyruvates and carbon dioxide
    E glucose into pyruvates
    C pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. Complete oxidative breadown of glucose results in ____ ATP molecules.
    A 39
    B 36
    C 2
    D 32
    E 4
    B 36
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. The amino acids we cannot synthesize are called ____ because we ____.
    A unnecessary; therefore do not need them
    B essential; must include them in our diets
    B essential; must include in our diets
  129. To what does the term grana refer?
    A a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
    B flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
    C central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
    D double membrane of the chloroplast
    A a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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