Chapter 8 Vocab

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Chapter 8 Vocab
2012-11-28 20:21:43
AP Psychology chapter eight vocab

vocab about Learning (chapter 8) (Last updated: 11/28/2012)
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  1. Learning
    • a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
    • putting 2 ideas together
  2. Associative Learning
    • learning that certain events occur together.
    • Can be 2 stimuli or a response and its consequences.
  3. Classical Conditioning
    a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli.
  4. Unconditioned response (UCR)
    in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
  5. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally automatically – triggers a response
  6. Conditioned response (CR)
    in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  7. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
    in classical conditioning, an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response.
  8. Acquisition
    the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response
  9. Extinction
    the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
  10. Operant Conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
  11. Respondent Behavior
    behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
  12. Operant Behavior
    behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
  13. Law of Effect
    • Thorndike’s principle
    • behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely (reward = do it again)
    • behaviors folowed by unfavorable conesquences become less likely (punishment = stop doing it)
  14. Skinner Box
    • a chamber containing a bar or a key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. 
    • Used in operant conditioning research
    • made by B. F. Skinner
  15. Shaping
    an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
  16. Reinforcer 
    • in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
    • to encourage
  17. Primary Reinforcer
    • an innate reinforcer, such as one that satisfies a biological need
    • eg. food, sex
  18. Secondary Reinforcer
    • a conditioned reinforcer; an event that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
    • eg. money, applause
  19. Continuous Reinforcement
    reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
  20. Partial Reinforcement
    • reinforcing a response only part of the time
    • results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
  21. Fixed-Ratio Schedule
    in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
  22. Variable-Ratio Schedule
    in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
  23. Fixed-Interval Schedule
    in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
  24. Variable-Interval Schedule
    in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
  25. Punishment
    • an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
    • to stop a behavior or discourage
  26. Cognitive Map
    • mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
    • for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as they have learned a cognitive map of it
  27. Latent Learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  28. Observational Learning
    learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
  29. Modeling
    the process of observing and imitatingbehavior
  30. Prosocial Behavior
    • positive, constructive, helpful behavior.
    • The opposite of antisocial behavior
  31. Positive Reinforcement
    • increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli
    • Ex: food
    • presented after a response, strengthens the response (add to)
  32. Negative Reinforcement
    • increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli
    • Ex: shock, car buzz
    • removed after a response, strengthens the response (take away)
  33. Intrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
  34. Extrinsic motivation
    a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
  35. Mirror neurons
    • frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
    • the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable limitation, language learning, and empathy.
  36. Spontaneous recovery
    the reappearance, after a pause, of an entinguished conditioned response.
  37. generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been contitioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
  38. discriminationin
    in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a contitioned stilulus and stimuli that do not signal an uncontitioned stimulus
  39. overjustification effect
    the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do