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what is the chemical formula for Carbohydrates?
what are the 3 types of carbohydrates? explain the difference between them.
- monosaccharides: single sugars. easiest to break down, and all sugars are broken down to this form.
- disaccharides: two sugar chain. takes longer to break down than monosaccharides.
- polysaccharides: chain of more than two sugars. camplex and takes the longest time to break down.
explain protein synthesis in regards to the two different types of protein.
- -Complete proteins have equal number of AA so there are no extras when protein chains are formed.
- -Incomplete proteins however have different numbers of AA so the extra peices are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. In kidney failure these extra AA accumulate in the blood so diet must be monitored.
what are the classifications of proteins? explain them
- Complete: have all 9 essential AA and are accuired from animal producta
- Incomplete: do not have all 9 essential AA and are accuired from grains, veggies, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
what is the chemical formula for protein? what is unique about this?
HOCN (the only nutrient containing nitrogen)
what in another name for incomplete proteins?
what are the classifications of fiber and what do they do?
- Soluble: may reduce LDL
- Insoluble: not digestible but speed up the GI tract by bulking up and irratating.
where are carbs found? what is the one exception?
they are all found from plants except Lactose which is found in milk.
how many Kcals are yeilded from:
- -Carbs: 1gm = 4 Kcal
- -Protein: 1gm = 4 Kcal
- -Fat: 1gm = 9 Kcal
what is glycogen?
a polysaccharide of glucose that is stored in the liver and mucle for energy reserves.
what are the two types of metabolism? what do they do?
- Catabolic - breaking down such as in infection etc.
- Anabolic - building up such as in growth
what are the two types of AA? how are they obtained?
- Esential: can't be produced by the body and must be obtained in food
- Nonesential: can be produced by the liver
how many AA are there?
23 total (9 esential, and 14 noneesential)
what are "anti-oxidents" and what do they do?
they are the vitamins A, C, and E. they neutralize free radicals
what is "Atherosclerosis"?
thickening of an arterial wall due to fatty buildup
what is dextrose? how/where is it used?
a monosaccharide that is like glucose. it is used in IV solutions as a quick form of energy.
nitrogen balance refers to the levels of nitrogen where?
that are being excreted by the kidneys
what is the only source of nitrogen?
when is there an equal nitrogen balance?
when the amount of protein intake and the amount of nitrogen excreted is in balance
when would the body encounter a pos. nitrogen balance?
during anabolic metabolism because the body uses extra protein to form new tissues
when would the body encounter a neg. nitrogen balance?
when there is more nitrogen excreted than ingested such as in malnutrition or bed confinement that results in muscle breakdown
what two vitamins do not need to be obtained from food? how do we get them?
- D from sunlight
- K is synthesized from bacteria in the GI tract
what molecules are fats made of?
fatty acids and tryglycerides
what are the 3 classifications of lipids (fats)? what are their consistancies at room temp?
- Saturated: are full of hydrogen ions and are hard at room temp.
- Unsaturated: have room for hydrogen ions and are liquid at room temp
- Trans-fatty acids: polyunsaturated fats (oils) that have been hydrogenated to prevent them from going bad. this makes them hard at room temp.
where do saturated fats come from? what are the two exeptions?
usually animal sources, coconut and palm oils are the exceptions.
where do unsaturated fats come from?
what are the two classifications of vitamins? list the vitamins that fall into each group
- water soluble: these vitamins are attracted to water so excess is lost in urine. these vitamins are C and the B complex
- fat soluble: these are attracted to fats and incluse vit. A, D, E, and K.
what do minerals do?
they act as catalysts for biochemical reactions.
what are the two classifications of minerals? define and list minerals in each catagory
- Macro: need >100mg/day (Na, K, Cl, Mg, P, Ca, S)
- Micro: need <100mg/day (Zinc, Fe)
what is the recommended amount of Ca?
what aids or inhibits the absorption of Ca?
- Vit. C and D are needed for absorption
- phospherous interfears with it
what % of one's total Kcals should come from Carbs (simple vs complex)? How many servings is that?
- 55-58% total
- 35-55% complex
- 10% simple
- (6 servings)
what is the recommended amount os protein/day by age? (% total Kcals?)
- age 0-6 months: 2.2g/kg/day
- adults: 0.8g/kg/day
- (12-20% of total)
what % of one's total Kcals should come from fats (saturated vs unsaturated)?
- no more than 30% total
- 25% unsaturated
- 10% or less saturated
how much fiber is recommended per day by age?
- 1-18: age + 5mg/day
- adult ~ 25g/day
ow many servings of fruits/veggies are recommended per day?
by what age does a childs weight double? triple?
- double by 4-5 months
- triple by 1 year
what is the minimum recommended time to breast feed?
the first year of life
at what age is it appropriate to introduce cow's milk? why?
after the first year because it has a high Na content and proteins that are too big for an infant's GI tract
what type of cows milk should be given to babies? why? for how long?
whole milk because it has linolenic acid needed for myelun sheath formation. should be given until age 2
what qualifies as obesity?
being over 30% overweight
what % of kids and adults in america are overweight?
- 25% of kids
- ~ 30% of adults are seriously overweight
what is arthropomerty? what does it measure?
- it is a system of measurement that aids in identifying nutrition problems by measuring:
- wrist circumferense
- mid arm circumference
what is MAC? what does it determine?
- mid arm circumference
- determines muscle wasting
what BMI indicates overweight, underweight, or obesity?
- underweight - <18.5
- overweight - 25-30
- obeasity - >30
what is the easy formula to determine a BMI?
- Lb. x 700
what are two shortcomings of a BMI?
it fails to show what % is fat and where it is located
what is the second greatest age for growth?
describe the effect of aging on metabolism and nutritional need
metaolism slows, energy and caloric need are reduced. however, there is increased need for protein in order to maintain tissues
what are the most important things to assess when evaluating nutrition in a patient?
- fast weight loss or gain
- mouth due to fast growing cells
- eyes are pale if anemic
- edema loss of albumin causes reduced osmotic pressure
what re some key values for an albumin test?
- normal = 3.5-5.0 g/dl
- mild depletion = 3.0-3.5 g/dl
- moderate depletion = 2.5-3.0 g/dl
how long do abnormal albumin results take to show?
about 2 weeks
what test is the gold standard for chronic malnutrition?
what test is the gold standard for acute malnutrition?
what is the normal value for a pre albumin test?
what is the normal value for a transferrin test?
what does transferrin do?
transfers iron from the intestines to the blood
what spacific deficiency does a transferrin test check for?
what does a total iron binding capacity test measure?
transferrin available to bind more iron
what is the normal value for a total iron binding capacity test?
what is the normal value for a hemoglobin test?
what are normal BUN values by age?
- adult = 10-20mg/dl
- child = 5-18mg/dl
- infants = 3-12mg/dl
what does a BUN test for?
it monitors the nitrogen balance
what can cause a BUN to give a false result?
dehydration, liver disease, or renal disease can cause a falsly high BUN