Bio-100-Exam-4-Chap_10_8_13

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micsflashcards
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Bio-100-Exam-4-Chap_10_8_13
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2012-11-27 15:41:31
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Evolution natural selection diversity
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Evolution and natural selection
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  1. What is the two part defintion of a species?
    A species of (1) a population of organisms that could potentially breed with one-another, and (2) the offspring must be fertile.
  2. Differentiate between prezygotic and postzygotic barriers that prevent interbreeding?
    Prezygotic barriers either makes it impossible for two species to mate with one another, or if they do, impossible for fertilization to take place. Postzygotic barriers occur after fertilization and prevent the production of fertile offspring.
  3. Is a "linger" considered to be a different species? Why?
    A "linger" is not considered a species because they do not occur naturally in the wild.
  4. Who is responsible for the classification scheme using seven (7) groups in a hierarchy?
    Carolous Linnaeus is responsible for the classification scheme using 7 groups in a hierarchy.
  5. What is the newer, higher order (more generalized) category called, and how many different ones are there?
    The newest and most generalized category is called a domain, and there are three (3).
  6. The first phase of separation is reproductive ________, through which two species have independent evolutionary fates, whereas the second phase of speciation is genetic _______, in which two populations accumulate physical and behavioral differences over time.
    The first phase of separation is reproductive reproductive isolation, through which two species have independent evolutionary fates, whereas the second phase of speciation is genetic genetic divergence, in which two populations accumulate physical and behavioral differences over time.
  7. Speciation with geographic islolation is called...
    Speciation with geographic islolation is called allopatric speciation.
  8. Speciation without geographic isolation is called...
    Speciation without geographic islolation is called sympatric speciation.
  9. What is the term used to describe a group in which all of the individuals are more closely related to each other than to any individual outside that group?
    Monophyletic is the term used to describe a group in which all of the individuals are more closely related to each other than any individual outside that group.
  10. Are the fungi more closely related to plants or animals?
    Fungi are more closely realted to animals than plants. That means animals have a more recent common ancestor with the fungi than the plants.
  11. The constuction of "evolutionary trees," has changed from comparing physical traits to comparing..
    The construction of "evolutionary trees," has changed from comparing physical traits to comparing molecular /DNA sequences.
  12. Analogous traits, such as bat and insect wings, have different ancestral origins and occur because of ________ evolution.
    Analogous traits, such as bat and insect wings, have different ancestral origins and occur because of convergent evolution.
  13. What are the traits called that are due to inheritance from a common ancestor? 
    Traits due to inheritance from a common ancestor are called homologous traits.
  14. What is it called where the pace of evolution has rapid periods of change, punctuated by longer periods of little change?
    Punctuated equilibrium is where the pace of evolution has rapid periods of change, punctuated by longer periods of little change.
  15. Name three (3) phenomena that triggers adaptive radiation.
    The three phenomena that triggers adaptive radiation are (1) Mass extinctions, (2) Colonization, and (3) Evolutionary innovations.
  16. Background extinctions are mostly the result of...
    Background extinctions are mostly the result of natural selection.
  17. What pecentage of animals must become extinct in a fairly short period of time for the event to be called a mass extinction?
    50% of the animals must become extinct in a relatively short period of time for it to be considered a mass extinction event.
  18. What molecule did Carl Woese sequence to determine evolutionary relatedness among all organisms?
    Carl Woese determined evolutionary relatedness of all organisms by sequencing ribosomal RNA.
  19. The "Great Dying," extinction event occurred ______ million years ago and killed ______ % of marine life, along with ______% of terrestrial vertebraes. 
    The "Great Dying," extinction event occurred 250 million years ago and killed 90 % of marine life, along with 75% of terrestrial vertebraes. 
  20. How many domains, and what are their names, did Carl Woese determined there to be? How many kingdoms are there?
    There are 3 domains, the Bacteria, the Archea, and the Eukarya. The Bacteria and Archaea each possess one kingdom, and the Eukarya possess 4 kingdoms, for a total of 6 kingdoms.
  21. If you collected all the biomass of bacteria on this planet, they would outweigh all the ______ and _______ on the earth.
    If you collected all the biomass of bacteria on this planet, they would outweigh all the plants and animals on the earth.
  22. Archaea and Bacteria diverged about ______ billion years ago, and Eukarya split _______ billion years ago.
    Archaea and Bacteria diverged about 3 billion years ago, and Eukarya split 2.5 billion years ago.
  23. What is the specific meaning of the term population?
    A population is a group of organism of the same species living in a particular geographic region.
  24. A fruit fly on the average can live 20 hours without food. After 60 generations of only allowing the flies that are "best" at surviving without food to reproduce, how long can they go without food? What is basically being selected for or against?
    After 60 generations of only allowing the flies that are "best" at surviving without food to reproduce, the population increased its survival time without food from an average of 20 hours to an average of 160 hours. Flies are being selected for those that are better at storing fat reserves, which morphologically means, the flies are getting fatter.
  25. What is the basic definition of evolution?
    Evolution is genetic cahnge in the population
  26. What is the basic defintion of natural selection?
    Natural selection favors certain individual organisms in a population being born with characteristics that enable them to survive better and reproduce more than the offspring of other individuals in the population.
  27. When Charles Darwin grew up what did people believe about a species in terms of its creation and changeability? Did they apply this idea to the earth in general?
    When Charles Darwin grew up people believed that all species, including humans had been created at the same time and that, once created, they never changed and never died out (the "fixity of species"). The earth was also thought to be 6000 years old and mostly unchanging.
  28. In 1778 the naturalist Georges Buffon began to shake things up by suggesting that the earth must be about ________ years old.
    In 1778 the naturalist Georges Buffon began to shake things up by suggesting that the earth must be about 70,000 years old.
  29. In the 1790's Georges Cuvier found fossils (Irish elk, mastodon, and giant sloth) with no obvious resemblance to any living species, which allowed only one explantion. What is that explanation.
    In the 1790's Georges Cuvier explained the presence of fossils (Irish elk, mastodon, and giant sloth) with no obvious resemblance to any living species as extinction, where a species is completely wiped out.
  30. Who was it, in the early 1800's suggested that a species might change over time?
    Jean-Bapiste Lamarck suggest in the early 1800's that a species might change over time.
  31. Who in his 1830 book, Principles of Geology, argued that geological forces had gradually shaped the earth and continue to do so?
    Charles Lyell in his 1830 book, Principles of Geology, argued that geological forces had gradually shaped the earth and continue to do so.
  32. During his voyage on the HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin noticed two important and unexpected patterns that would be central to his discovery of a mechanism for evolution. What were they?
    The two patterns of nature that Charles Darwin notice on his voyage on the HMS Beagle were: (1) the resemblance of island species to mainland species, which may have separated from the mainland and formed new species, and (2) the striking similarity between the fossils of extinct species and the living species in that same area, which he deduced proof of ancestry.
  33. Who wrote the book called Essay on the Principle of Population, and what influence did it have on Charles Darwin's ideas?
    Thomas Malthus wrote the book called Essay on the Principle of Population, which espoused the idea that populations had the potential to grow much faster than food supplies. This inferred to Darwin that the "best" individuals would win in the ensuing struggle for existance, and the "worst" would lose.
  34. Charles Darwin had an inkling that his ideas would rock the world and wrote to a friend: "At last gleams of light have come, and I am almost convinced (quite contrary to the opinion I started with) that species are not (it is like confessing to murder)..."
    Charles Darwin had an inkling that his ideas would rock the world and wrote to a friend: "At last gleams of light have come, and I am almost convinced (quite contrary to the opinion I started with) that species are not (it is like confessing to murder) immutable.
  35. Who else independently came up with the same ideas as Charles Darwin and had a joint presentation with him?
    Alfred Russel Wallace independently came up with the same ideas as Charles Darwin and had a joint presentation with him.
  36. What is the exact name of Charles Darwins first book?
    The exact name of Charles Darwin's 1st book was, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
  37. If you intentionally produce more white tigers, you will have witnessed evolution, a change in ________ frequencies of the population. Evolution doesn't involve changing the genetics or physical feature of individuals, individuals do not evolve. Rather, you change the proportion of ________ in the population.
    If you intentionally produce more white tigers, you will have witnessed evolution, a change in allele/gene frequencies of the population. Evolution doesn't involve changing the genetics or physical feature of individuals, individuals do not evolve. Rather, you change the proportion of allele/genes in the population.
  38. Name four (4) agents of evolution.
    The four agents of evolution are (1) mutation, (2) genetic drift, (3) Migration, and (4) Natural Selection
  39. What is a mutation, and what does it change?
    A mutation is an alteration of the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA, and if this occurs to alleles it can change the protein produced.
  40. Where must a mutation occur for it to be passed on to the next generation?
    For a mutation to be passed on to the next generation it must happen to the sperm or egg-producing cells.
  41. What causes mutations?
    Muatations are caused by: (1) duplication of DNA errors, (2) mutagens, mutation including chemical (ex. radioactive isotopes), and (3) ultraviolet light.
  42. Although environmental factors influence the rate at which mutations occur, they do not influence exactly ________ mutations occur.
    Although environmental factors influence the rate at which mutations occur, they do not influence exactly which mutations occur.
  43. Is the "jury out" as to mobile phones causing mutations?
    Yes, the jury is still out as to mobile phones causing mutations.
  44. All variation-the raw material for natural selection-must initially come from...
    All variation-the raw material for natural selection-must initially come from mutations
  45. What is genetic drift? Is its impact greater in small or large populations?
    Genetic Drift is a random change in allele frequencies, which occurs far more frequently in small populations.
  46. What is the founder effect of genetic drift?
    The founder effect, is a type of genetice drift where only a few individuals give rise to a new population, which is where most new species are founded.
  47. When a population is quickly reduced to a small fraction of its original size, this reduction is called...? As a consequence of such a bottleneck, evolution would occur through...
    When a population is quickly reduced to a small fraction of its original size, this reduction is called bottleneck. As a consequence of such a bottleneck, evolution would occur through genetic drift.
  48. What is another name for migration?
    Another name for migration is gene flow.
  49. What are the (3) conditions necessary for natural selection to occur?
    The three (3) conditions necessary for natural selection to occur are, (1) there must be variation for a particular trait in the population, (2) that variation must be inheritable, and (3) individuals with one version of the trait must produce more offspring than those with a different version of the trait.
  50. Define "fitness," What are the three important elements to an organism's fitness? 
    Fitness is the measure of the relative amount of reproduction of an individual with a particular phenotype, as compared with the reproductive output of individuals with alternative phenotypes. The 3 important elements to an organisms fitness are (1) it has to measure relative to other genotypes and phenotypes, (2) it depends on the specific environment, meaning that if the environment changes its fitness can also change, and (3) it has to be compared to other organisms reproductive success.
  51. How does your author define adaptation?
    Adaptation refers to the process by which organisms become better matched to their environment and to the specific features that make an organism more fit.
  52. Does adaptation mean that an organism marches towards some optimal endpoint leading to perfect organisms?
    Adapatation does not mean that an organism marches towards some optimal endpoit leading to perfect organisms.
  53. Sometimes a trait has been selected for one function, such as incipient wings initially controlling the temperature of the organisms body), that is later modified to serve a completely different ________ (such as flight).
    Sometimes a trait has been selected for one function, such as incipient wings initially controlling the temperature of the organisms body), that is later modified to serve a completely different function (such as flight).
  54. What are the (5) primary lines of evidence demonstrating the occurence of evolution?
    The five (5) primary lines of evidence demonstrating the occurence of evolution are (1) the fossil record, (2) biogeography, (3) comparative anantomy and embryology, (4) molecular biology and (5) laboratory and field experiments.
  55. By using radioactive isotope urarnium 238, with half-life of 4.5 billion years, researchers have determined the earth is about _______ billion years old.
    By using radioactive isotope urarnium 238, with half-life of 4.5 billion years, researchers have determined the earth is about 4.6 billion years old.
  56. The fossil record of what animal is especially well preserved?
    The fossil record of the horse is especially well preserved.
  57. The study of distribution patterns of living organisms around the world is called...
    The study of distribution patterns of living organisms around the world is called biogeography
  58. Since bat wings, porpoises fins, horses legs, and human hands have the same bones-although modified extensively sometime-they betray the fact that they have a common ancestor, and these feature are called _______ structures.
    Since bat wings, porpoises fins, horses legs, and human hands have the same bones-although modified extensively sometime-they betray the fact that they have a common ancestor, and these feature are called homologous structures.
  59. What is it about genetic code that suggest all living organism are related?
    Because all organism share the same genetic code, this suggests that all living organism are related.
  60. Are there any fiel experiments that enable us to watch evolution? If so name a couple..
    The field experiments on golf course grass, and the evolution of resistant strains of bacteria.
  61. Can it be dangerous to use antibacterial soap? If so, why, and what can you do about it?
    Yes, it can be dangerous to use antibacterial soaps. The antibacterial chemical in soap is usually triclosan, and if you don't wash your hands long enough it only kills the weak bacteria, leaving the strong ones behind and increasing the frequency of the gene that makes them resistant.
  62. How many different kinds of microbes have been identified?
    About 500,000 have been identified.
  63. What kind of microbe is not classified at all?
    Viruses are not classified into any domain at all.
  64. What is bacterium?
    A bacterium is a simple one celled organism with a cell wall, and with no nuclear membrane or organelles.
  65. In what shpe is the DNA of a bacterium?
    The DNA of a bacterium is in a circle or loop.
  66. How does the normal E. coli of your intestines differ from the E. coli that sickens you?
    A strain of E. coli that occasionally sickens patrons of fast-food restaurants carries a virulence plasmid ( a little extra piece of DNA separate from its loop) that magnifies the effects of a gene for a sometimes-lethal toxin.
  67. Can bacteria transfer DNA?
    Yes, bacteria can transfer DNA to one another in a number of different ways.
  68. What is the advantage of having a normal flora of bacteria over all your surfaces, both internally and externally?
    The advantage of having a normal flora of bacteria over all your surfaces is that they take up space, making it difficult for disease-causing bacteria to gain a foothold.
  69. In the bacteria, what are the organic food feeders called?... the inorganic food feeders?...the light self-feeders?
    • Organic food feeding bacteria=Chemoorgnotrophs
    • Chemical inorganic food feeding bacteria=Chemolithotrophs
    • Light self-feeding bacteria=Photoautotrophs
  70. What is bacterium called when it causes diseases?
    When a bcterium causes disease it is called a pathogen.
  71. Most of the antibodies we use today are derived from...
    Most of the antibodies we use today are derived from microbes.
  72. Archaea are as different from bacteria as ______ are different from bacteria.
    Archaea are as different from bacteria as humans are different from bacteria.
  73. What group of organisms can live 200 meters below the surface of the ocean, in water near 400 C at hydrothermal vents, and in extreme acid and base solutions?
    The Archaea can live 200 meters below the surface of the ocean, in the water near 400 C at hydrothermal vents, and in extreme acid and base solutions.
  74. What digests the fibers in beans and produces the methane gas of your intestines?
    Archaea digest fibers of beans and produces the methane gas of your intestines.
  75. What makes the Archaea hard to study?
    Archaea are hard to study because many require extreme heat or pressure to grow, and these conditions are not easy to provide in a laboratory.
  76. From what is thought that Eukarya nuclear membrane formed?
    The Eukarya nuclear membrane probably formed by the fusion of folds of plasma membrane that surrounded the cells of prokaryotes. 
  77. Give an example of an animal-like protist?
    A Paramecium is an example of an animal-like protist.
  78. Give an example of a fungus-like protist.
    Slime-molds are examples of fungus-like protists.
  79. Give an example of a plant-like protist.
    Algae are examples of plant-like protist.
  80. What protist is responsible for malaria?
    The animal-like protist Plasmodium is responsible for nalaria.
  81. What is the name of the genetic disorder that confers a resistance to the malaria-causing protist?
    The dosorder called Sickle-cell anemia confers a resistance to the Plasmodium causing malaris.
  82. What is a virus missing that keeps it out of one of the three domains?
    Because a virus does not exist as a cell in cannot be assorted into one of the three domains.
  83. Which molecules on the surface of cells do viruses recognize and then inserts its genetic material?
    Viruses recognize glycoproteins (sugar proteins) which it binds with to insert is DNA.
  84. What was the influenza called that led to a pandemic of 1918-1919?
    The Spanish Influenza led to the pandemic of 1918-1919.
  85. Which is more difficult to combat, the DNA viruses or the RNA viruses and why?
    DNA viruses have base-pair sequences that are stable over time, because the enzymes that replicate the DNA check for errors and correct them. Whereas, the RNA viruses have no error checking mechanism and they make lots of errors, mutating over time, making it difficult for our immune system to recognize them.
  86. In what organism does the swine flu originate?
    The swine flu originates in birds.

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