MicroLastTestbeforeFinal

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Author:
levzahav9
ID:
185646
Filename:
MicroLastTestbeforeFinal
Updated:
2012-11-27 18:19:10
Tags:
Microbiology
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Description:
last test before the final
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  1. Kirby-Bauer Test 
    • routinely done to monitor the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria
    • Observe for a trend in order to take precautionary measures
  2. examples of precautionary measures
    • development of new drugs
    • determining the molecular basis for resistance and modify existing drugs accordingly
  3. Other uses of KB test
    • test the antibiotic sensitivity of an organism
    • takes away the guessing when choosing antibiotic
    • lets you know if it's gram positive or gram neg.
  4. procedures for KB test
    • Prepare a pure culture (18-24 hrs) of the sample on a non-selective medium
    • Adjust turbidity until it is equivalent to the 0.5 McFarland Turbidity Standard
    • Within 15 minutes of adjusting the turbidity dip a sterile cotton swab into the sample
    • streak a lawn of bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar
    • Leave the lid agar for 3-5 minutes (no more than 15 minutes) to allow plate to dry
    • Apply antibiotic impregnated disks on the bacterial lawn
    • Important: where the disk drops is where it stays
    • Incubate for 16-18 hours at 33 ± 2C unless otherwise instructed
  5. results of KB test
    • Antibiotics diffuse out onto the agar
    • Concentration of antibiotics decrease as they diffuse further away from the disks
    • After incubation, observe for a clearing on the  bacterial lawn (zone of inhibition)
  6. how to come to conclusions with results of KB test
    • Measure the diameters of the zone of inhibition
    • Interpret the results as “resistant” or “susceptible”  according to the guideline provided by the NCCLS
    • Interpretation of the zone of inhibition is different for  each bacteria-antibiotic combination
    • zone of inhibition (yellow)
    • bacterial growth (orange)
  7. trichomonas vaginalis 
  8. trichomonas vaginalis
    • plasmodium falciparum ring stage
    • (malaria)
  9. leishmania donovani
  10. trypanosoma cruzi in blood smear
  11. toxoplasma gondii
  12. entamoeba histolytica intestinal lesions
  13. balantidium coli
  14. Trypanosoma gambiense
  15. Naegleria fowleri
  16. Amoebic Dysentery
    Pathogen:
    Symptoms:
    Reservoir:
    Diagnosis:
    Treatment:
    • Pathogen: entamoeba histolytica
    • Symptoms: abscesses; significant mortality rate
    • Reservoir: humans
    • Diagnosis: microscopy; serology
    • Treatment: metronidazole
  17. Trichomoniasis
    Causative agent:
    Found in: 
    SS:
    pH:
    diagnosis:
    • Causative agent: trichomonas vaginalis
    • Found in: semen or urine of male carriers
    • SS: Vaginal infection that causes irritation and profuse foul, greenish yellow frothy discharge
    • pH:5-8
    • Diagnosis: microscopic ID; DNA probe
    • treatment: metronidazole
  18. Trypanosoma gambiense
    Where is it identified?
    Symptoms?
    Motile?
    • ID in the blood, CSF
    • SS (sleeping sickness), fever, sleepiness, unconsciousness
    • Motility due to flagella
  19. Chagas Disease
    Causative agent:
    Reservoir:
    Vector:
    • Causative agent: trypanosoma cruzi
    • Reservoir: rodents, opossums, armadillos
    • Vector: reduviid bug
  20. Giardiasis 
    Causative agent:
    SS:
    ID:
    Transmission:
    Motility:
    • Causative agent: giardia lamblia
    • SS: most asymptomatic, chronic diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain
    • ID: by cyst form or trophozoites in stool
    • Transmission: contaminated food or water
    • Motility: flagella
  21. Leishmaniasis
    Disease:
    Causative agent:
    vector:
    reservoir:
    treatment:
    geographic distribution:
    • Disease: visceral Leishmaniasis
    • Causative agent: leishmania donovani
    • vector: sandflies
    • reservoir: small mammals
    • treatment: amphotericin B or miltefosine
    • geographic distribution: south asia, sudan, brazil
  22. Balantidiasis 
    Causative agent:
    SS:
    ID:
    Motility:
    • Causative agent: balantidium coli
    • SS: mostly asymptomatic, diarrhea alternating w/ constipation, blood and mucus in feces
    • ID: cyst form or trophozoites
    • Motility: cilia
  23. Malaria
    Causative agent:
    SS:
    vector:
    definitive host: 
    treatment:
    control:
    • Causative agent: Plasmodium falciparum
    • SS: chills, nausea, vomiting
    • vector: anopheles mosquito
    • definitive host: anopheles mosquito
    • control: bed nets
    • treatment: artemisin
  24. Life Cycle of Malaria
    • 1. Infected moquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human
    • 2. Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced
    • 3. Merozoites released nto bloodstream from liver may infect new RBCs
    • 4. Merozoite develops into ring stage in RBC
    • 5. Ring stage grows and divides, producing merozoites
    • 6. Merozoites are released when RBC ruptures; some merozoites infect new RBC and some develop into male and female gametocytes
    • 7. Another mosquito bites infected human and ingests gametocytes
    • 8. In mosquito's digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote
    • 9. Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary gands of mosquito
  25. Cryptosporidiosis
    Pathogen:
    SS:
    Reservoir:
    Diagnosis:
    Treatment:
    • Pathogen: crytposporidium hominis
    • SS: self-limiting diarrhea; may be life threatening in immunosuppressed ppl
    • Reservoir: cattle; water
    • Diagnosis: acid-fast stain; FA; ELISA
    • Treatment: oral rehydration

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