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2012-12-10 16:17:06

Terms and concepts
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  1. Balanced meal
     The old standard of protein, vegetable, and starch has been broken down further to emphasize lean cuts of meat, starches that are high in fiber, and vegetables that are prepared in a way that does not diminish their nutritive value.
  2. Plating Fundamental Concepts
    When balance, based on nutrition; flavor; texture; and appearance is factored into the creation of a dish, you are presenting a plate of food that is appealing to the diner from all angles.
  3. How to make a plate appealing
     Giant towers of food are overly contrived and impossible to navigate. Flat, one dimensional plates are boring and offer little in the way of appeal. Once again the concept of balance comes into play and it might be a good idea to have certain items on a plate mounded higher or molded into shapes in order to offer contrast to other items the a plate.
  4. Meal Courses
    • 1. Amuse bouche
    • 2. Appetizer
    • 3. Salad
    • 4. Soup 
    • 5. Pasta
    • 6. Main
    • 7. Cheese
    • 8. Dessert
    • 9. Mignardises
  5. Classic French cuisine is based on seven cooking techniques.
    1. Le Rôtir 2. Le Sauter 3. Le Griller 4. Le Frire 5. Le Poêler 6. Le Pôcher7. Le Braiser
  6. Follow these standards to purchase pork:
    The meat should be firm to the touch and reddish-pink in color and should never have a gray hue to it.The texture should be fine grained and the pork should not have an excessive amount of exterior fat.Any fat that is present should be white in color and never yellow or browning.Finally, pork should have a mild, sweet smell and should never feel slimy or sticky.
  7. Selecting the Perfect Lamb
    Lamb should be bought when it is light red and fine grained in appearance. Older lamb, or mutton, has a darker, purpler hue and is much more pungent in aroma and flavor and the meat is tougher. Lamb should never have an unpleasant odor and the fat on lamb should always be white, never yellow or brownish. The ends of the bones on lamb should appear moist, red, and porous and not brown or dried and crusty.
  8. Chicken Sizes
    Typically whole chickens less than four pounds are referred to as fryers or broilers; anything over four pounds is called a roaster. Very large chickens are often called stewing chickens.
  9. Marinade
    Marinades are flavorings that penetrate meat in liquid form. They often contain acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or soy sauce, and the acid acts as a tenderizer and slightly breaks down the structure of the meat.
  10. Building the Perfect Brine
    Brine is a combination of salt and water, and sometimes sugar and other flavorings. Heavily-salted brine can be used as a cure for meats that are going to be cooked very slowly, smoked, or air dried. Some of the water in the meat is replaced by the salt, which provides a less desirable environment for bacteria and decreases the chances of spoilage. Brining with a lower salt content is done to impart flavor and increase moisture and always results in a juicier piece of meat. For a quicker effect, meats are sometimes injected with flavored liquids using a special meat syringe. While this does not give the same overall moisture increasing effect as brine, it imparts flavor throughout the meat.
  11. Cooking 'en papillote'
    a French technique in which an item is basically steamed within an enclosed packet made from either parchment paper or foil.
  12. Crudo
    "raw" in Italian,  crudo tends to thicker pieces (as opposed to carpaccio)
  13. carpaccio
    refers to very thin slices,is a dish of raw meat or fish (such as beef, veal, venison, salmon or tuna), thinly sliced or pounded thin and served mainly as an appetizer.
  14. Tartare
    Tartare is a preparation of finely chopped raw meat optionally with seasonings and sauces.
  15. Ceviche
    The dish is typically made from fresh raw fish marinated in citrusjuices, such as lemon or lime, and spiced with ají or chili peppers. Additional seasonings, such as chopped onions, salt, and coriander, may also be added.
  16. court bouillon
    simple vegetable broth seasoned with white wine and/or vinegar   for poaching seafood
  17. Cooking Seafood en papillote
    For each piece of fish, fold a piece of parchment paper in half and cut a rectangle 12 to 14 inches long, and 9 to 10 inches wide.Brush the bottom edge of the pouch with lightly beaten egg white. Fold over the top and crimp the edges to seal.Place the pouch on a baking sheet and bake at 475°F (246°C) for 8 to 10 minutes for thin fillets, or 15 minutes for thick fillets.
  18. Storage for root vegetables
    Root vegetables tend to lose what little moisture they have quickly, so they are best stored without their greens, wrapped in a damp paper towel in a perforated plastic bag in the refrigerator.
  19. Storage of tubers such as potatoes
    • Tubers are best stored in a dark, cool, well ventilated place and not in the refrigerator.
  20. cardoon
  21.  rapini
  22. Legumes
    plants that produce edible seeds in pods that are often also edible. The legumes that are most often associated with and treated as vegetables are green and wax beans; sugar, snap, and English peas; soybeans and fava or broad beans
  23. Properly Store potatoes, squash, onions and garlic
    Potatoes and hard squash should be stored in a cool, dark and dry place. Onions and garlic should be stored in the same way, but should not be stored near potatoes as they have an adverse effect on each other.  
  24. Store tomatoes
    Tomatoes are best stored at room temperature unless they are over-ripe, in which case they should be refrigerated and used quickly.
  25. Storing vegetables such as carrots or beets and others
    Most other vegetables should be refrigerated in a clean, dry bag until you are ready to use them. Remove the leafy tops from any vegetables that have them, such as carrots or beets, before refrigerating because the leaves absorb moisture from the vegetables and cause them to lose moisture more quickly.
  26. Prepping Your Veggies
    Without exception, all vegetables should be wiped, or washed, before you prepare them. Even those vegetables that are peeled should have any excess dirt removed before you proceed with them
  27. Pasta cooking time
    Dried pasta typically takes anywhere from 10-20 minutes to cook. Fresh pasta is very light and silky and cooks very quickly, often in 3-5 minutes
  28. Rice noodles
     Dried rice noodles need to be soaked in water for about an hour before using them. Once soaked, they can be tossed directly into stir-fries and soups as is, or they can be boiled
  29. Bean thread noodles
    mung bean flour and are used in much the same way as rice noodles. They are also known as cellophane or glass noodles because they are shiny and transparent when they are cooked. If dried cellophane noodles are dropped into very hot oil they puff up dramatically
  30. How to Cook the Perfect Pasta
    Cooking pasta is very easy, but certain procedures ensure perfectly cooked pasta each time. Pasta needs to be cooked in the proper amount of rapidly boiling water in a vessel that is large enough to allow it room to expand as it cooks. Oil should never be added to pasta water because sauces will slide off the pasta. Pasta water should always be generously salted because pasta dough is typically made with very little salt. It is easier to impart the flavor into the pasta as it absorbs the water than it is when adding it to the cooked pasta. It is crucial that pasta be stirred immediately upon being placed in the water and then occasionally while it cooks, to prevent it from clumping together and to keep it from sticking to the bottom of the pot.
  31. How Long to Cook Your Pasta
    The cooking time for pasta varies depending on which type of pasta is being cooked. Fresh pasta usually cooks in about 5 minutes while dried pasta takes anywhere from 10 to 20 minutes. If the pasta is going to be cooked again, like lasagna or baked pasta, it should be pulled before it is fully cooked to avoid ultimately overcooking it. You can shock cooked pasta in ice water or run it under cold water to stop it from cooking immediately. However, you never want to do this to pasta that is being served immediately because you can rinse away the starch that assists in sauce adhering to the pasta.
  32. Basic Pasta Dough Ingredients
    Servings: 4-6Although some recipes call for pasta dough made in a food processor or stand up mixer, the classical way is to mix and knead it all by hand. This recipe calls for a couple of extra yolks for added richness and a deep yellow flavor.2 cups finely ground semolina flour2 large eggs, whole1 large egg yolk1/2 tsp. salt1 tsp. extra-virgin olive oil
  33. stocks and broths
    stocks are generally made only with bones while broths are made with meat, often, for an extra deep flavor, broths are made by cooking meat in stock, rather than just water
  34. Basic pasta dough preparation
    Mound the flour on a work surface and make a large well in the center.Crack the whole eggs, yolk, salt, and oil into a small dish (discard any shell that falls in).Pour egg mixture into the center of the well and beat with a fork until blended.Continue to beat egg mixture, incorporating flour a little at a time by taking it from the inside wall of the well.Try to keep the rest of the wall intact by supporting the outside of it with your other hand.When the mixture becomes a thick paste, begin to mix in the flour with your hands.Continue to knead enough of the flour into the dough to allow it to form a soft ball.Brush the remaining flour on the work surface to the side and knead dough, flouring the surface of the dough as needed to keep dough from sticking. Knead until smooth and elastic. This should take about another 5 minutes.Shape the dough into a tight ball and lightly dust the dough with a bit more flour, wrap it in plastic wrap, and let stand at room temperature for about an hour before working with it.
  35. Bechamel
    Roux with milk,It is made by slowly whisking warm milk into roux until no lumps remain and then simmering to ensure that the taste of raw flour is totally cooked out. The top of the bechamel is skimmed as needed to remove any impurities that rise to the surface as it cooks. It is crucial to keep an eye on bechamel and stir often to prevent it from scorching.
  36. Veloute
    Roux with stock, Veloute is basically the same as bechamel, however white stock is used in the place of milk.
  37. Roux is
    combining some type of fat (typically butter) with flour in equal parts by weight. The fat is warmed over medium heat and then the flour is added to it all at once. The roux is then cooked while being stirred constantly for about 5-8 minutes. The consistency of a proper roux should resemble very wet sand.
  38. Common stocks
    The most commonly used stocks are white, brown, and vegetable.
  39. Light White Stocks
    White stocks are made with bones that are typically quickly blanched before they are combined with the other ingredients. The blanching allows the impurities, which may cause a stock to become cloudy, to be leached out before the bones are used for the stock, which results in a clear liquid. Typically only pale colored vegetables are used in these stocks to avoid imparting any color.
  40. Rich Brown Stocks
    Brown stocks are made similarly to white stocks, but in this case the bones and vegetables are roasted before they are combined with the water and aromatics. Most brown stocks include some type of tomato product and the ideal brown stock is rich in color and flavor
  41. Hearty Vegetable Stocks
    Vegetable stocks are often made from left over end pieces, peelings, and scraps from any combination of vegetables used in the kitchen. This technique, however, often results in an imbalanced stock with one or two flavors predominating. A good vegetable stock should have an even balance of flavor and not be overwhelmed by any one taste. Therefore it is preferable to follow a set recipe rather than relying on only what you have on hand
  42. Eggs: A Volatile Thickener
    The eggs (often just the yolks) are placed in a bowl and whisked together with a small amount of the hot liquid to temper the eggs. Cold eggs scramble if added directly to the soup without tempering. The warmed eggs are then added back to the soup and slowly warmed until the soup thickens. Then the soup must be removed from heat.
  43. How to Make a Sauce with Wine
    Typically these sauces are made by cooking off the alcohol and then reducing the wines until they become syrupy in consistency and concentrated in flavor. Once the wine is reduced, this reduction is then built upon using other ingredients such as stocks, juices, and purees.
  44. The ratio for a basic vinaigrette
     3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar. The vinaigrette can be flavored with any type of ingredients from herbs to juices to nuts.
  45. Sauce A La Creme D'ail - Garlic Cream Sauce
    12 cloves garlic, peeled100g mushrooms, sliced1c skim milk1tb strong stock1ts parsley, chopped1pn nutmeg1 salt and pepper to taste.  Cover 12 peeled cloves of garlic with water and bring to the boil. Simmer for 10 minutes, then drain and discard the water. Return the garlic cloves to the saucepan and add 100 g sliced mushrooms, a cup of skim or fat modified milk, a tablespoon of very strong stock, 1 teaspoon chopped parsley, a pinch of nutmeg and salt and pepper to taste. Simmer gently for 20 minutes then puree the mixture in a blender or food processor. Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary. Good with grilled or roasted poultry.
  46. gremolata,
    an Italian mixture of lemon zest, garlic, and parsley  Ingredients:Zest of one large lemon*1 lg. or 2 sm. cloves garlic; crushed2 Tbsp. finely chopped parsley1 tsp. olive oil1/2 tsp. salt1/4 tsp. ground black pepper
  47. 1 teaspoon
    5 ml OR 1/3 tablespoon
  48. 1/4 cup
    2 oz. or 59 ml or 4T
  49. 1 Tablespoon or 1T
    15 ml or 0.5 oz. or 3t 
  50. 1/2 (0.5) cup
    4fluid ounces or   8tablespoons or  118 ml
  51. 1 cup
    237 ml or 8 oz or 16T
  52. 2 oz 
    55 grams
  53. 8 oz
    240 grams
  54. 1 lb. or 16 oz
    454 grams
  55. 1 gallon
    3.78 liters
  56. Marjoram
    Marjoram has a more delicate and sweet flavor and a slightly minty, citrusy taste that is better suited to lighter dishes like chicken and seafood.
  57. Oregano
    Oregano has a rich, pungent, somewhat spicy flavor and is best paired with heartier dishes like tomato based sauces and grilled meats
  58. herbs de Provence
    combination containing (not necessarily all) of the following herbs thyme,basil, fennel seed, lavender, marjoram, rosemary, sage, and summer savory
  59. Dill
    Both the seeds and leaves of the dill plant are edible and used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Dill leaves are delicate, feathery, and wispy in appearance and resemble those of fennel. They have an aromatic, sweet flavor that can be overpowering if too much is used. Dill leaves, often referred to as dill weed, pairs well with fish, poultry, potatoes, and other vegetables and is commonly used in the cuisines of Scandinavia and Russia. Dill seeds are much stronger in flavor than dill weed and are similar to caraway in that their flavor is at the same time sweet and somewhat bitter.
  60. Tarragon
     Characterized by its anise-like flavor, it can be a delicate enhancer in small amounts and completely overpowering in larger quantities or if it has been cooked for too long. It grows on slim, tender stems and has long, narrow dark green leaves. Tarragon is often used in combination with other herbs so that is does not overpower a dish. It is a nice accompaniment to fish, meat, and poultry as well as hearty vegetables. Tarragon is the primary ingredient in the well-known sauces bernaise and remoulade that have a rich foundation that can hold up to the intense flavor of the herb. Tarragon also lends itself well to acidic ingredients such as vinegars and citrus, which help to mellow some of its intensity.
  61. Rosemary
     Rosemary leaves have high oil content, a strong pine fragrance, and a flavor similar to mint and pine. It pairs very well with other strong flavored foods like lamb, beef, and game and makes a good marinade for all of these. It is also a good match, in small quantities, for bold flavored vegetables and can infuse a subtle, fragrant undertone when a whole sprig is placed in a pot of soup or stew to steep for a short period of time
  62. Sage
     Thanksgiving turkey and stuffing. It goes without saying that sage is a natural complement to poultry, but is also quite nice when paired with pork and veal and when simmered slowly in stews or pots of beans. Younger, more tender, and less intensely flavored leaves can be used sparingly in salads, with eggs, and with some vegetables
  63. Winter and Summer Savory
    Both types of savory are good matches for all types of beans and legumes and in fact are referred to by the Germans as the bean's herb. While winter savory lends itself to hearty food preparations, summer savory is more often used with lighter beans and legumes such as green beans and lentils. It also pairs well with chicken, lighter meats, and most types of vegetables and is palatable enough to be eaten raw when added to salads and other fresh dishes. Savory is commonly used in herb blends, particularly a Middle Eastern blend za'tar, which is a mix of savory, thyme, and marjoram
  64. Garde Manger
    Appetizers, namely cold food items and is often referred to as the pantry. Utilizing numerous techniques including curing, smoking, brining, drying, pickling, canning including sausage, pates, and cheese.
  65. charcuterie
    prepared meat products such as sausage, salami, pate, bacon, and ham
  66. Curing
    Also referred to as dry curing, is done by making a mixture of salt, herbs, spices, and sugar and rubbing it all over the item that is to be cured
  67. Brining
    Wet curing, is similar to dry curing but entails submerging the food into a well seasoned salt water solution where it sits for a specific amount of time. Brined foods trap the salty brining fluid in the cell walls, which imparts flavor, inhibits bacterial growth, and makes them less prone to drying out when they are cooked.
  68. Hot smoking
     process that flavors at item with smoke but also cooks as it smokes, because it is doing so at such a high temperature. Typically used on larger cuts of meat, hot smoked items are fully cooked and ready to be eaten once they are properly smoked. Because hot smoking is a process that takes a long time, it is imperative that any items cooked in this way be properly brined or cured before the smoking process begins to ensure safety
  69. Cold smoking
    Technique is used when a product is already cooked or will be cooked using a different technique and all that is desired is the imparting of the smoky flavor. The cold smoking process is done at a very low temperature for a very short time. This technique is often used when smoking cheeses and vegetables.
  70. Forcemeats
    Forcemeats are made by combining meat, fat, and flavorings in such a way that they are bound tightly together and remain that way even after they are cooked. Forcemeats can be smooth or coarse in texture and the term refers to an array of items ranging from sausage to salami to pâté and beyond
  71. Pickling
    also known as brining or corning, is the process of preserving food by anaerobicfermentation in brine to produce lactic acid, or marinating and storing it in an acid solution, usuallyvinegar (acetic acid). The resulting food is called a pickle. This procedure gives the food a salty orsour taste. In South Asia, edible oils are used as the pickling medium with vinegar[citation needed].Another distinguishing characteristic is a pH less than 4.6,[1] which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishable foods for months
  72. Fermenting
    Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates toalcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions
  73. Fermented foods
    • Worldwide: alcohol, wine, vinegar, olives, yogurt, bread, cheese
    • *risk of botulism and carcinogens
  74. Hors d' oeuvres
    small, bite-sized morsels that are either served before the start of a meal or instead of a meal. Sometimes also referred to as canapés, they can be served banquet style and laid out on platters for guests to help themselves or they can be passed around to guests on trays by food servers.
  75. Pie Crust Dough Ingredients:
    3 cups of all-purpose flour (approx 15 oz.)2 teaspoons of Kosher salt (reduce to one teaspoon if using table salt)3 tablespoons sugar (optional)20 tablespoons of unsalted butter (2 1/2 sticks or 10 oz.)2 cups of ice water
  76. Pâte Brisée, the Short Pastry Dough
    French and British versions of pâte brisée contain only four ingredients--fat, flour, salt, and water. American versions introduce small amounts of sugar, sometimes substitute cream or whole milk for water, and may call for an acid, such as vinegar, lemon juice, wine, or vodka as a means to shorten the gluten strands during the mixing process in order to yield a flaky crust.
  77. Fat Facts for Pie Crust and Pastry Dough
    Any type of solid fat can be used to make pâte brisée. Fat acts as a gluten interrupter, shortening the strands. An all-butter recipe is traditional, but vegetable shortening and lard are also used in the industry, either alone or in combination with butter. The style of butter matters as well. Using an unsalted European style butter offers more control over salt and moisture. European style butters tend to contain less water and more fat than American-made butters; more fat equals more flavor and flaky texture.
  78. Cooking Techniques: Keeping Pie Crust and Pastry Dough Cool
    It's a good idea to work near a cooler so ingredients can be immediately chilled if they begin to come to room temperature. Placing pastry blenders, measuring cups and spoons, and food processor bowls and blades in the freezer for 30 minutes or more before you use them can prevent the ingredients from warming to room temperature as they're being blended. Using ice water instead of room temperature water also keeps the fat and ingredients cold during the mixing process. If the ingredients begin to soften or become sticky, place everything onto a baking sheet and slide into a cooler for at least five minutes.
  79. Understanding the Pie Crust and Pastry Dough Moisture & Flour Balance
    If not enough water is added, the dough will be crumbly and difficult to work with. If too much water is added, the dough will be sticky. Sticky dough requires additional flour and mixing, which can result in overdeveloped gluten and a tough texture.
  80. Light Pastry Dough (pate A Choux)
    Like most pastry doughs, ingredients for pâte à choux are humble and simple, using only butter, flour, salt, water and sugar. The mixing method, however is unique and allows the power of steam to transform the dough into light pockets of crispy hollows, with intricate and delicate tunnel structures, ready for sweet or savory fillings.
  81. Light Pastry Dough (pate A Choux)
    Light Pastry Dough Ingredients:1 stick of unsalted butter (8 tablespoons, or 4 oz.)1 teaspoon of Kosher salt (1/2 teaspoon for regular salt)1 tablespoon sugar1 1/4 cup all-purpose flour; bread flour can also be used (8 oz.)4 large eggs
  82. Sweet Dough
    Sweet dough is a little bit more forgiving than flaky dough because the butter is incorporated into the flour and therefore does not need to remain cold. The liquid in sweet dough comes from a combination of sugar (which turns to liquid when it heats) and egg, which adds moisture, color, flavor, and structure. Little or no water is added to this dough. Instead, it begins with soft butter that is first creamed by itself, the sugar is then added, then the yolks, and finally a small amount of cream or water. The flour is typically added last and is only mixed briefly so that the dough doesn't become tough. Because it has a higher moisture content, sweet dough should rest longer than flaky dough so that the butter has time to harden again, the moisture can be absorbed by the flour, and the dough is easier to work with
  83. Flaky Dough
    With flaky dough, the butter pieces must be cold and large and surrounded by the flour, but not blended into it. This dough must be worked with quickly and kept as cold as possible. When cut properly, the butter in this dough is broken into flat, large pieces so that when the dough is baked, the solid butter pieces melt and the water in the butter evaporates. This puffs up the dough and leaves an air pocket where the piece of butter once was. It is these air pockets that are responsible for the crust being flaky. The flour and butter in this dough are bound with ice water and once it is formed, the dough must rest for at least an hour so that the butter has time to solidify again.
  84. Pastry doughs
    Doughs are made using a method known as the 3-2-1 method. In this, the ingredients are combined in a ratio by weight of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part liquid
  85. Top ten comfort foods
    Pizza, biscuits, french fries, spaghetti, chicken soup, fried chicken, mashed potatoes, burrito, macaroni n' cheese, grilled cheese sandwich, lasagna, meatloaf.
  86. Roux
    Mixture of equal parts fat and flour that is one of the most common thickeners for sauces and soups
  87. Basic vegetable side dish cooking technique
    Put the vegetables into boiling salted water, and periodically take a piece out and eat it to test for doneness. Then he recommends draining the water out with a colander and placing the vegetables on a clean kitchen towel to soak up the remaining water. While they're hot, season them with lemon juice, plenty of extra virgin olive oil, salt and pepper. For a flavor twist, toss a few cloves of garlic into the cooking water before adding the greens; after draining the water, mash up the garlic and add it to the other seasonings.
  88. Top ten recipes every cook should know
    1. simple syrup 2. roasted garlic 3. pate brisee (basic pie crust) 4. polenta 5. mashed potatoes 6. ice cream 7. marinara 8. roasted chicken 9. chocolate cake 10. Basic white rustic loaf bread
  89. Basic white rustic loaf bread
    Ingredients500g strong white bread flour, plusextra for dusting1 tsp fine salt7g sachet fast-action dried yeast1 tbsp olive oil, plus extra for greasingMethod1. Sift the flour and salt into a large bowl. Stir in the yeast. Make a well in the centre and gradually mix in 300ml warm water and the oil until the dough comes together – add a dash more water if it seems dry.2. Tip out onto a lightly floured surface and knead the dough for 5 minutes, until smooth. Shape like a rugby ball and put onto an oiled, large baking sheet. Set aside in a warm place for 40 minutes or until doubled in size. This is known as proving or rising.3. Preheat oven to 425F/220°C/fan200°C/gas 7. Make deep slashes with a sharp knife in the top of the dough and dust with flour. Bake for 20-25 minutes, until risen, golden and cooked. To test if it’s ready, tap the base of the loaf – it should sound hollow. Cool on a wire rack and slice to serve.
  90. Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion or vice versa
    • C=5/9 (F-32)
    •   F=(9/5C) +32
  91. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
    1. Knife skills-including knife sharpening. 2.Sous vide technique.3. Keeping kitchen equipment, tools, and practices sanitary.4. Proper temperature control whenhandling all meat, fish, and vegetables.5. How to select and procure quality ingredients
  92. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
    1. It's imperative for a chef to develop an extremely well-tuned palette.2. Get in the habit of tasting at every stage of the cooking process. 3.A chef also has to be an expert with kitchen tools, knowledgeable about products and absolutely strict about maintaining the highest level of hygiene4.. In addition, a chef is something of a role model in the kitchen and must keep the atmosphere professional. 5.And last, a successful chef will have the imagination and courage to explore, experiment and introduce new culinary feats to the world with complete confidence.
  93. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
     1.Working clean. You have to be impeccably clean all the time. 2.Seasoning. How to use salt and acid (lemon juice, vinegar, etc.) to balance your food. 3.Mis en place. How to be organized and have everything in its place. 4.Emulsification. How to make unlike products (for example oil and water) become one. 5. Precision. You must be precise and not compromise.
  94. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
     How to work clean in the kitchen. Cleaning as you go, learning proper food safety and sanitation. Good knife skills (You don't want to cut yourself every time you are in the kitchen). How to follow a recipe.(This will lead to confidence working with different ingredients and being able to improvise). Sense of urgency.(Set time guidelines for yourself to improve your speed). Most importantly, have fun and love what you are doing while in the kitchen!
  95. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
    The techniques I recommend are these: Become a great businessman. I know that this is not a kitchen technique, but you need to be a businessman first. Knife skills. You need to be able to break down proteins. Cleanliness. How to season your proteins well without over-salting. Finally, a great chef needs to have a "sixth sense" in his kitchen. You need to know what's happening without seeing it. Eyes in the back of your head.
  96. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
     Tasting, seasoning, balance. Hand and knife skills. Cleaning and sanitation. Focus and attention to detail. Heat control.
  97. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
     Baking. Knowing how to bone and trim meat. The proper way to cook fish. Knowing how to make vinaigrette. Knowing mise en place and being clean. Being able to work under a lot of pressure.
  98. What do you think are the five most important kitchen techniques a chef must learn?
    Speed and organization. Ability to make the right decisions. 24-hour coaching on the tiles and off. Being a great motivator while being a creative trendsetter. Acute culinary business savvy.
  99. Garnish
    Item or substance used as a decoration or embellishment accompanying a prepared food dish ordrink. In many cases, it may give added or contrastingflavor. Some garnishes are selected mainly to augment the visual impact of the plate, while others are selected specifically for the flavor they may impart
  100. Tuile
    A tuile is a thin, crisp sweet or savory cookie or wafer made of dough or cheese.[1]Originally from France, 'tuile' means tile in French, and is named after the shape of French roof tiles it is supposed to resemble.[2] They are commonly added asgarnishes to desserts such as panna cotta or used as edible cups for sorbet or ice cream.