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  1. Differentiate between specific and nonspecific resistance
    • Innate immunity: first line of defense, generic
    • Adaptive immunity: second line of defense, specific
  2. Define and describe the 4 types of aquired immunity
    • Natural: aquired through life experiences
    • Artificial: acquired by medical means/procedure
    • Active: receive antigen (weakend) to force antibody creation
    • Passive: receive antibody from someone else
  3. Compare and contrast humoral and cell-mediated immunity
    Humoral immunity:
  4. Define antibodies, describe its structure and function
    • Produced in response to an antigen
    • Globular proteins called immunoglobulens
    • Highly specific: recognize, bind to, and neutralize antigens
    • 4 chain structure: constant region and variable region
    • Classified based on CONSTANT region
  5. Describe the 5 primary ways in which antigen-antibody binding is protective to the host
    • Agglutination: enhances phagocytosis
    • Opsonization: Covers surface of pathogen, enhances phagocytosis
    • Complement fixation: Causes inflamation and cell lysis
    • Antibody-dependent cell-mediated immunity: mark for destruction by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells
    • Neutralization: blocks adhesion of bacteria/viruses to mucosa
  6. Define apoptosis and contrast it with necrosis
    • Apoptosis: pre-programmed cell death
    • Necrosis: premature cell death
  7. List the 5 classes of immunoglobulines; describe unique features of each
    • IgG: memory antibody, 80%, complement fixation, neutralizes toxins/virus, 2nd produced from initial infection
    • IgM: first antibody for new infection, only antibody formed by fetus, 5-10%, complement fixation,┬ápentamer
    • IgA: dimer + secretory component, 10-15%, found in secretions
    • IgD: Uknown function, .2%
    • IgE: Allergic reactions, .002%, bound to mast/basophil cells
  8. Describe the clonal selection theory
    • B cells that contain the specific antibody are cloned
    • Plasma cells: remain in blood stream, travel through body producing antigens
    • Memory cells: retained for future use (to create more plasma cells quickly)
  9. List and give a function for each type of T cell, activated macrophage, and natural killer cells
    • Helper T Cells (CD4, TH)
    • TH1: activates cells related to cell-mediated immunity (macrophages, cytotixic T cells)
    • TH2: activates B cells to produce eosinophils, IgM, and IgE
    • Cytotoxic T Cells
    • Recognize and destroy infected/cancerous "self" cells
    • Induce apoptosis in infected cells
    • Delayed Hypersensitivity T Cells (TD)
    • Associated with allergic reaction, transplant rejection, TB skin test
    • Suppressor T cells (TS)
    • Turn off immune response with antigen is no longer present
    • Activated macrophages
    • Activated by TH cells via cytokines (destroy Ag)
    • NK cells
    • Attack virus infected cells and cancer cells
    • lack specific cell receptors (innate response)
  10. List and describe the different types of cytokines, their function, and the cells that secreted them
Card Set:
2012-11-27 19:27:14

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