Bio Ch. 42

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  1. Adult Stem Cell
    any stem cell not found in an early embryo; can divide and differentiate into any of several different cell types, but usually not all of the cell types of the body
  2. aging
    the gradual accumulation of damage to essential biological molecules, particularly DNA in both the nucleus and mitochondria, resulting in defects in cell functioning,declining health, and ultimately death
  3. allantois
    one of the embryonic membranes of reptiles (including birds) and mammals; in reptiles, it serves as a waste-storage organ; in mammals, it forms most of the umbilical cord
  4. amnion
    one of the embryonic membranes of reptiles (including birds) and mammals; encloses a fluid-filled cavity that envelops the embryo
  5. amniotic egg
    the egg of reptiles, including birds; contains a membrane, called the amnion, that surrounds the embryo, enclosing it in a watery environment and allowing the egg to be laid on dry land
  6. blastocyst
    an early stage of human embryonic development, consisting of a hollow ball of cells, enclosing a mass of cells attached to its inner surface, which becomes the embryo
  7. blastopore
    the site at which a blastula indents to become a gastrula
  8. blastula
    in animals, the embryonic stage attained at the end of cleavage, in which the embryo usually consists of a hollow ball with a wall that is one or several cell layers thick
  9. chorion
    the outermost embryonic membrane in reptiles (including birds) and mammals; in reptiles, it functions mostly in gas exchange; in mammals, it forms most of the embryonic part of the placenta
  10. chorionic villus
    in mammalian embryos, a fingerlike projection of the chorion that penetrates the uterine lining and forms the embryonic portion of the placenta
  11. cleavage
    the early cell divisions of embryos, in which little or no growth occurs between divisions; reduces the cell size and distributes gene-regulating substances to the newly formed cell
  12. colostrum
    a yellowish fluid, high in protein and containing antibodies, that is produced by the mammary glands before milk secretion begins
  13. development
    the process by which an organism proceeds from fertilized egg through adulthood to eventual death
  14. differentiate
    the process whereby a cell becomes specialized in structure and function
  15. direct development
    a development pathway in which the offspring is born as a miniature version of the adult and does not radically change in body form as it grows and matures
  16. ectoderm
    the outermost embryonic tissue layer, which gives rise to structures such as hair, the epidermis of the skin, and the nervous system
  17. embryonic disk
    in human embryonic development, the flat, two-layered group of cells that separates the amniotic cavity from the yolk sac; its cells produce most of the developing embryo
  18. embryonic stem cell
    a cell derived from an early embryo that is capable of differentiating into any of the adult cell types
  19. endoderm
    the innermost embryonic tissue layer, which gives rise to structures such as the lining of the digestive and respiratory tracts
  20. extraembryonic membrane
    in the embryonic development of reptiles (including birds) and mammals, one of the chorion (functions in gas exchange), amnion (provision of the watery environment needed for development), allantois (waste storage), or yolk sac (storage of the yolk)
  21. fetal alcohol syndrome
    a cluster of symptoms, including mental retardation and physical abnormalities, that occur in infants born to mothers who consumed large amounts of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy
  22. fetus
    the later stages of mammalian embryonic development(after the second month for humans), when the developing animal has come to resemble the adult of the species
  23. gastrula
    in animal development, the three-layered embryo with ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm cell layers; the endoderm layer usually encloses the primitive gut
  24. gastrulation
    the process whereby a blastula develops into a gastrula, including the formation of endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
  25. homeobox gene
    a sequence of DNA coding for a transcription factor protein that activates or inactivates many other genes that control the development of specific, major parts of the body
  26. implantation
    the process whereby the early embryo embeds itself within the lining of the uterus
  27. indirect development
    a developmental pathway in which an offspring goes through radical changes in body form as it matures
  28. induced pluripotent stem cell
    a type of stem cell produced from non-stem cells by the insertion of a specific set of genes that cause the cell to become capable of unlimited cell division and to be able to be differentiated into many different cell types, possibly any cell type in the body
  29. induction
    the process by which a group of cells causes other cells to differentiate into a specific tissue type
  30. inner cell mass
    in human embryonic development, the cluster of cells, on the inside of the blastocyst, that will develop into the embryo
  31. labor
    a series of contractions of the uterus that result in birth
  32. lactation
    the secretion of milk from the mammary glands
  33. larva
    an immature form of an animal that undergoes metamorphosis into its adult form; includes the caterpillars of moths and butterflies, the maggots of flies, and the tadpoles of frogs and toads
  34. mammary gland
    a milk-producing gland used by female mammals to nourish their young
  35. mesoderm
    the middle embryonic tissue layer, lying between the ectoderm and endoderm, and normally the last to develop; gives rise to structures such as the muscles, the skeleton, the circulatory system, and the kidneys
  36. metamorphosis
    in animals with indirect development, a radical change in body form from larva to sexually mature adult, as seen in amphibians (e.g. tadpole to frog) and insects (e.g. caterpillar to butterfly)
  37. morula
    in animals, an embryonic stage during cleavage, when the embryo consists of a solid ball of cells
  38. organogenesis
    the process by which the layers of the gastrula (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) rearrange to form organs
  39. placenta
    in mammals, a structure formed by the complex interweaving of the uterine lining and the embryonic membranes, especially the chorion; functions in gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the embryonic and maternal circulatory systems, and also secretes the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which are essential to maintaining pregnancy
  40. stem cell
    an undifferentiated cell that is capable of dividing and giving rise to one or more distinct types of differentiated cells
  41. therapeutic cloning
    the production of a clone for medical purposes
  42. yolk
    protein-rich or lipid-rich substances in eggs that provide food for developing embryos
  43. yolk sac
    one of the embryonic membranes of reptiles (including birds) and mammals; in reptiles, it is a membrane surrounding the yolk in the egg; in animals, it forms part of the umbilical cord and the digestive tract but does not contain yolk
  44. zygote
    in sexual reproduction, the diploid cell (the fertilized egg) formed by the fusion of two haploid gametes
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Bio Ch. 42
2012-11-27 20:01:35
Bio 42

Bio Ch 42
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