How many species are there? What percentage does this represent for all the species that have ever been on this planet?
About 1.8 million species have been catalogued. This only represents 0.01% of the species that have ever existed on this planet.
What are the three main areas of taxonomy?
The three main areas are:
Classification: the grouping of organisms into taxa
Nomenclature: the naming of organisms
Identification: figuring out the name of an organism that has already been classified and named.
Differentiate between natural and artificial systems of classification.
Artificial classification is categorizing based on any criteria, and is often used for convenience. Natural clasification attempts to categorize based on evolutionary origin and degree of relatedness.
What are the seven groupings of taxonomy from the most general to the most specific?
The seven groupings of taxonomy, from most general to the most specific are: Kingdom, Phyla, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
As you go from the more general taxa to the more specific taxa do you get more inclusive or exclusive?
When you go from the more generalized taxa, where a large number of different kinds of organisms are grouped together-say kingdom- to the more specific taxa, where fewer kinds are grouped together-say genus- you get more exclusive.
Generally how is a species defined?
Generaly a species is defined as individuals who can procreate with one another and the offspring are also fertile.
Although dogs are physically quite variable, are they members of the same species?
Even though dogs are physically quite variable from one another, they can all procreate and produce viable offspring which makes them all members of the same spevies.
Although horses and donkeys look quite alike, are they members of the same species?
No, although horses and donkeys look quite alike they cannot produce a fertile offspring; the mule is sterile.
Are the races of humans of the same species?
Yes, all races of humans can procreate with one-another and produce fertile offspring, which makes them all members of the same species.
Are all of the organisms of the world realted to one another?
Yes, all organisms are related to one another somewhere in history.
Are you more related to a dog or a chimpanzee?
You are more related to a chimpanzee than a dog. The chimpanzee belongs in your order -Primata- than a dog belongs in your class-Mammilia. Orders are more exclusive than class.
Name the 3 domains.
The three domains are, Archaeobacteria (old bacteria), Eubacteria (new bacteria), and Eukarya, all others with eukaryotic cells.
The taxonomy of stressing newer shared characteristic, than older shared characteristics.
Synapomorphies are shared uniquely derived characteristics between species.
Do whales have a more recent common ancestor with human or a fish?
Whales have a more recent common ancestor with humans than any fish.
Differentiate between Divergent and Convergent evolution. Is man similar to a chimpanzee due to divergent of convergent evolution. Are whale and fish similar to one another due to divergent or convergent evolution?
When similarities are due to having a recent common ancestor it is called divergent evolution. When similarities are due to adapting to the same kind of environment it is called convergent evolution. Man and chimpanzees are divergent. Whales and fish are convergent.
Which human taxa is name for a female trait?
The class Mammilla is name for the feamle breast.
Who is the "Father of Taxonomy"?
The father of Taxonomy is Carolous Linnaeus.
Differientiate between common names and scientific names. Why does science insist on using the Latinized scientific name?
Common names are vernacular (regional) in origin with no rules or regulations on naming, whereas scientific names are universally accepted and say something taxonomically about the species. Science insists on it so we can communicate without confusion.
What is the Binomial System of "Nomenclature?"
The binomial system of nomenclature is giving two names for an organism.
Which two taxa are parts of the scientific name?
First name is the genus, second name is the species.
What is the scientific name of Maize?
Zea Mays L., or Zea Mays L is the name of maize.
What two methods are available to you for identifying the name of an organism?
The two methods available are to ask an authority or learn to use keys.
In what century was the theory of plate tectonics first proposed?
The theory of plate tectonics was first proposed in the 20th century.
Are oceans and mountains permanent?
No, although big and vast, mountains and oceans are not permanent.
How much history of the earth is recordedi in the Grand Canyon?
When you get to the bottom of the Grand Canyon you have gone back 2 billion years.
The prevailing religous dogma of the 18th century said that the Earth was a mere ______ years old.
The prevailing religous dogma of the 18th century said that the Earth was a mere 6,000 years old.
When James Hutton (The father of Geology) looked at Hadrians Wall, what did he conclude about geological time, and why?
When James Hutton (The father of Geology) looked at Hadrians Wall he concluded that geological time was enormous, beacuse it would takes eons of time to erode rock.
What is the age of the Earth?
4 1/2 Billion years old is the approx. age of the Earth.
When James Hutton saw that previously horizontal layers of rock were now vertical, what did he conclude about geological forces?
When James Hutton saw that previously horizontal layers of rock were now vertical, he concluded that geological forces were enormous.
Who, in 1912 proposed the radical idea that Africa and South America were once joined?
Alfred Wegener proposed the radical idea that Africa and South America were once joined.
Dredging of the Ocean floor shows that it is no older than _______ million years.
Dredging of the Ocean floor shows that it is no older than 150 million years. which represent a mere 5% of the age of the Earth. This is such a small amount of the history of the Earth because the ocean floor is constantly being produced in the great valleys of the ocean and, by subduction, is constantly being swallowed under the continents.
In 1960, Harry Hess proposed the idea of "Sea Floor ______"
In 1960, Harry Hess proposed the idea of "Sea Floor Spreading"
The sea floor grows more progressively ________ the farther it is away from the mid-oceanic ridge.
The sea floor grows more progressively older the farther it is away from the mid-oceanic ridge.
Into how many plates is the lithosphere fractured?
The lithosphere is fractured into about 20 major plates.
In how many ways do the plates react?
The plates interact in four ways.
What created the Himalayas? Is Mount Everest getting taller or shorter?
India colliding into Asia created the Himlayas where Mount Everest is growing taller.
How does the pacific plate interact with the North American plate at the San Andreas Fault?
The Pacific plate interacts with the North American Plate at the San Andreas Fault by sliding past.
What kind of energy drives plate tectonics?
Massive upwelling convection (heat) currents in the interior core of the Earth drives plate tectonics.
We see evidence of a stationary thermal plumb in the middle of the Pacufic plate by the pattern of ________.
We see evidence of a stationary thermal plumb in the middle of the Pacufic plate by the pattern ofislands produced.
It has been suggested that the North American continent has grown by _____% from exotic terrains.
It has been suggested that the North American continent has grown by 25% from exotic terrains.
Why is there evidence of glaciers in the Sahara Desert?
There is evidence of glaciers in the Sahara Desert because it was once closer to a polar region.
250 Million years ago we see evidence that there is a super-continent (all existing continents are together) called _______.
250 Million years ago we see evidence that there is a super-continent (all existing continents are together) called Pangea.
Towards the end of the film there is an example of how plate tectonic influenced the evolution of life. What is the example?
The example of the green turtle migration has been influenced by plate tectonics.
Aristotle's model of the universe was called the "Scala Naturae" or the ______ of Life.
Aristotle's model of the universe was called the "Scala Naturae" or the Ladder of Life.
What occupies the top rung of Aristotles ladder, and why? Who occupies the second top rung, and why?
God occupies Aristotles top rung because God represents the ultimate, perfect or ideal state of being. Man occupies the 2nd rung because he was created in the image of god; hence, man is more perfect than any other organism.
Was Aristotles model based on the ideal and the concept of perfection? Does this infer that there are higher (better) and lower(worse) organisms?
Yes, Aristotles model was based on ideal, and the concept of perfection, which infers that there are higher and lower organisms.
Is Aristotle's model partially correct in Darwinian terms?
No, Aristotle's model is not even partially.
What was the field called that attempted to see if anything could be learned about the attributes of the Deity by studying his handiwork-nature? Who popularized this endeavor with a book?
Natural Theology was the area that attempted to learn about the Deity for studying his handiwork. William Paleypopularized this field with his book Natural Theology: or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature.
Who is it that was a paragon of comparative anatomy and paleontology, who concluded that fossils were evidence of former life, and that stratified rock was derived from silt deposited in water and turned to stone?
George Cuvier was the paragon of comparative anatomy and pelentology.
Who is the father of Geology and wrote Theory of the Earth?
James Hutton is the father of Geology and wrote Theory of the Earth.
Who wrote the Principles of Geology and provided evidence to support "Theory of the Earth"?
Charles Lyell wrote Principle of Geology and provided the evidence to support James Hutton.
Who proved with micrographia that plant fossils were petrified wood?
Robert Hooke wrote Micrographia that proved that plant fossils were petrified wood.
Who was it that proposed "Evolution by Acquired Characteristics?"
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck proposed the concept of Evolution by "Acquired Characteristics."
The idea of "Acquired Characteristics" effectively turned Aristotle's "Ladder of Life" into a "Moving ______."
The idea of "Acquired Characteristics" effectively turned Aristotle's "Ladder of Life" into a Moving escalator.
Who occupies the top rung in the Lamarckian view?
Because Lamarck was an atheist , man occupies the top rung in his view.
In Lamarck's view, change is not accidental, but is based on ______ or ______.
In Lamarck's view, change is not accidental, but is based on use or non-use.
Does life just keep getting better and better in the Lamarckian view?
Yes, life just keeps getting better in the Lamarckian view.
Would you be surprised to learn that Lamarck's view originated during the early stages of the industrial revolution, and that this settled well with that era's concept of progress?
Lamarck's view settled well with the industrial revolutions era in the concept of progress and purpose.
What's wrong with teleological thinking?
The problem with teleological thinking is there is no point or purpose, and you cannot read another organisms mind.
Was anything Lamarck said correct in Darwinian terms?
Nothing Lamarck said was correct in the Darwinian view, except that organisms change over time, which was not Darwin's idea.
Darwin proposed "Evolution by means of Natural ________."
Darwin proposed "Evolution by means of "Natural Selection"
What are the four immutable facts Darwin's ideas rely upon?
The four immutable observed facts Darwin's ideas rely upon are: (a) that individuals of a species are variable, and (b) offspring have the same variations as their parents, (c) the environment changes, and (d) populations over reproduce.
What five inscapable conclusions did he arrive at based on these two observations? (Darwin)
The five inscapable conclusions arrived at based on the above four observations are: (a) resources are limited, (b) the ones that survive leave offspring, (c) the next generation is represented by the offspring that have inherited favorable traits, (d) all members eventually have the favorable traits and (e) since the environment is constantly changing what is favorable constantly changes, and species keep changing or go extinct.
Fitness is nothing more than reproducing.
What determines the norms of fitness? Does it have a consciousness?
The norms of fitness are determined by an unconscious environment.
Is there an absolute definition of a good or bad trait?
There is no absolute definition of a good trait or a bad trait.
All advantageous traits have to be translated into _______ success, not just mere survival.
All advantageous traits have to be translated into reproductive success, not just mere survival.
Is there any scientific purpose in reproduction?
No, contrary to what most biologists say, there is no purpose in reproduction.
What is the source of new or novel traits?
The source of new or novel traits is mutations.
If you need a trait to adapt, is there any guarantee that you will get it?
No, there is no guarantee that you will get a trait that you need in order to adapt. In fact, the chances are that all organisms will go extinct.
Is survival or extinction the norm? What percentage of organisms that have ever existed have gone extinct?
Extinction is the norm, with 99.9% of all species that have ever existed going extinct. That means that today's species represent a mere 0.1% of all species that have ever existed.
In Darwin's view, is evolution predetermined or directional?
No, in Darwin's view evolution is not predetermined or directional.
In a nutshell, Evolution = __________+___________
Evolution = Variety + Selection
Speciation = ________ + _________
Speciation = Evolution + Reproduction Isolation
From the modern synthesis of Evolution and Genetics, evolution is defined genetically as...
From the modern synthesis of evolution and Genetics, evolution is defined genetically as a change in gene frequency.
In the Hardy-Weinberg law, what are the four ;conditions, which if met, will result in no evolution (no gene frequency)?
No mutations, no migration, large population, and random mating will result in no evolution, or no change in gene frequency.
Give three (3) examples for the empirical evidence for evolution as fact.
The three examples for the empirical evidence for evolution as a fact are: (1) Peppered moths color adaptation to soot on the trees, (2) mosquito adaptation to DDT, and (3) human adaptation to diseases (i.e the black plaque and measles)
How thorough is the fossil record for the evolution of the whale, the mammal's inner ear, and for human origins? Is this hard evidence?
The fossil record, which is hard evidence for evolution, is very thorough for the whale, the mammal's inner ear, and for human origins.
What are your teacher's two reasons for arguing that there is no such thing as a "missing link?"
The two arguments made by your teacher refuting the concept of the "missing link" were: (1) ladder-like view, as if the modern ape can turn into a modern human, and (2) big changes occurs in small populations, which have little chance of fossilizing.
Can it be argued as an inference that organisms are not perfectlly adapted to their environment? If so, how do you account for the imperfection of adaptation?
Yes; it can be argued evolution is true by inference because nature is not perfect.
What are those digits on your feet? What is the big toe?
The digits on your feet are really short fingers, and your big toe is really a thumb.