Chapters 27 & 28

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Chapters 27 & 28
2012-11-27 16:18:24
Reproduction Pregnancy Development

A&P 233 - Reproduction, Pregnancy & Development
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  1. A cell that separates from an oocyte during the first meiotic division.
    1st Polar body
  2. A cell that separates from an oocyte during the second meiotic division.
    2nd Polar body
  3. Anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex.
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  4. Fluid filled cavity between the epiblast layer of the bilaminar embryonic disc and the amnion.  (9th day)
    Amniotic cavity
  5. Glycoprotein produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.  Keeps concentration of testosterone in vicinity of spermatogenic cells high which stimulates stermatogenesis.
    Androgen-binding protein (ABP)
  6. Formed when inner cell mass in embroy differentiates into 2 layers, the hypoblast (inner/lower) and epiblast
    (upper/next to cytotrophoblast).  Occurs after implantation and before embryonic folding. (Days 14-21)
    Bilaminar embryonic disc
  7. Stage of early embryonic development, formed by day 5; product of cleavage.  Implants in endomedtrium by day 6.  On 8th day, new cells move to form inner cell mast and trophoblast.
  8. Cells formed in a zygote by the process of mitotic cell division.
  9. Send nerve impulses to hypothalamus, stimulates release of prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) to produce milk.  Also stimulates release of oxytocin to stimulate mammary glands to contract and release milk.
    Breast stretch receptors.
  10. Anchors the ovary to the uterus as well as the uterus to the pelvic wall.
    Broad ligament
  11. Expanded portion of corpus spongiosum base.
    Bulb of penis
  12. Pea-sized glands on either side of male urethra that secrete an alkaline fluid into the urethra during sexual arousal to protect sperm through acidic passageway.  Also secretes mucus to reduct friction & potential damage to ejaculated sperm.
    Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)
  13. Narrow, inferior portion of uterus that serves as an opening to the vagina.
  14. Outermost fetal membrane; helps form the placenta.  Made up of extraembryonic mesoderm & trophoblast.  Important in exchange between maternal blood & embryo.
  15. Mitotic cell division in zygote that forms blastomeres.
  16. Small, cylindrical mass of erectile tissue in females that is homologous to glans penis in males.  Capable of enlargement upon tactile stimulation & has role in female sexual excitement
  17. Arrangement of elongated follicle cells around a mature ovum.
    Corona radiate
  18. Sponge-like regions of erectile tissue that contain most of the blood in penis & clitoris during sexual excitement.
    Corpus cavernosum/Corpora cavernosa
  19. Created by transformation of a ruptured follice by luteinizing hormone.  Secretes estrogen & progesterone to prepare endometrium for implantation.  Degenerates as luteinizing hormone & follicle stimulating hormone levels decrease.
    Corpus luteum
  20. Sponge-like region of erectile tissue in the penis that is responsible for keeping the urethra open during ejaculation.
    Corpus spongiosum
  21. Hormone released by the placenta that stimulates fetal hypothalamus to relase ACTH.  Part of process to develop lungs.  Also stimulates increased secretion of estrogen just prior to birth.
    Corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH)
  22. Glucocorticoid produced by fetal adrenal glands when stimulated by ACTH released from hypothalamus.  Triggers maturation of fetal lungs and surfactant production.
  23. Bands of skeletal muscle that arise from internal oblique muscle of the trunk to elevate the testes.
    Cremaster muscles
  24. Differentiates from trophoblast cells of blastocyst this inner layer, along with outermost syncytiotrophoblast layer on day 8.  Part of chorion
    Cytotrophoblast layer
  25. Layer of smooth muscle in the superficial fascia, wrinkles the scrotal skin.
    Dartos muscle
  26. Duct that continues from the inferior end of the epididymis, becoming less convolutes & larger in diameter.  Ascends, transports sperm to urethra during sexual arousal by peristaltic contractions.  Can store sperm for up to several months.
    Ductus deferens (Vans deferens)
  27. Embryonic germ layer; form the epidermis of the skin & its derivitives & nervous tissues.  Cells from inner cell mass form the primary ectoderm (epiblast).  Part of trilaminar embryonic disc.
  28. Duct that sperm & seminal vesicle secretions pass through just before release of semen from urethra to exterior.
    Ejaculatory duct
  29. Developmental stage extending from fertilization to the end of the 8th week.
  30. 1st - 8th weeks after fertilization.
    Embryonic period
  31. Embryonic germ layer; forms the lining of the digestive tube & its associated structures.  Part of trilaminar embryonic disc.
  32. Inner layer of bilaminar embryonic disc formed when cells of inner cell mass differentiates on 8th day.
    Epiblast layer
  33. Primarily composed of a tightly coiledtubule, receives immature spermatids from testes.  Sperm matures here (+/- 14 days) by acquiring a flagellum for motility & ability to fertilize ovum.  Also propels sperm towards ductus deferens during sexual arousal by peristaltic movements.  20' if stretched.  Can store viable sperm for several months.
  34. Hormone that stimulates secondary sex characteristics; released from corpus luteum to maintain endometrium; Placenta is primary source of this hormone by 9th week; level increases toward end of pregnancy to increase number of gap junction in smooth muscle layer of uterus & oxytocin receptors
  35. Birth
  36. Formed during differentiation of yolk sac during day 12.  Part of chorion
    Extraembryonic mesoderm
  37. Process by which 2 gametes from parents fuse their genetic material to make a zygote.  Requires that sperm cells travel through uterine tube to contact a secondary oocyte. 
  38. Developmental stage extending from 9th week of development to birth.
  39. Gonadotrophic released by anterior pituitary when stimulated by GnRH that stimulates ovarian follicle production in females  sperm production in males.  Estrogen inhibits release, but promotes accumulation.
    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  40. Remnant of location that foramen ovale existed in fetal heart on interatrial septum.  Foramen ovale was hole in the interatrial septum between right atrium & left atrium, allowing blood to bypass nonfunctioning lungs.
    Fossa ovalis
  41. Formation of gametes
  42. Developmental process that produces 3 primary germ layers by rearranging epiblast cells.  Generates the trilaminar embryonic disc.
  43. 3 Cellular layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) that respresent the intial specializartion of cells in the embryonic body & from which all body tissues arise.
    Germ layers
  44. The enlarged tip of the penis.
    Glans penis
  45. Hormone released by the hypothalamus which reaches the anterior pituitary cells via the blood of the hypophyseal portal system.  Controls the relase of FSH & LH as part of ovarian cycle.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)