bio 19

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bio 19
2012-11-27 17:30:17
bio psych

learning and memory III
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  1. Amygdala is necessary for..
    learning and recalling for pavlovian conditioning
  2. Intrumental conditioning
    -repeated trals ineffective responses occurred less frequently and effective responses occurred more frequently

    *experiment: cats needed less time to escape from puzzle box
  3. Thordlike: Law of Effect (3)
    • -succesful responses were stamped in by the experience, ocurred more frequently
    • *satisfying consequences

    -Unsuccessful responses, those producing annoying consequences were stamped out and occured less frequently

    ***some consequences streghtened behavior and some consequences weakened behavior
  4. (B.F Skinner) Reinforcement
    increases the probability  that a behavior will occur
  5. (B.F Skinner) Punishment
    decreases the probability that a behavior will occur
  6. 2 important areas for dopamine
    tegmental field area and substantia nigra
  7. Dopamine is important for...
    reward and reinforcement
  8. WHats nuclues accumbens important for?
    its just as important as dopamine for behaviors directed at rewards
  9. COnditioned place preference and Dopamine
    rats were given drugs that stimulated dopamine in dark side and saline shot on the brighter side.

    *rats would prefer to hangout in the dark
  10. Abusing drugs causes the release of

    **all types
  11. experiment: if dopamine receptors are blocked...
    less activiation of the levers will happen
  12. Substance abuse definiton
    maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by 3 or more symsptoms occuring at any time in the same 12 month span...

  13. Characteristics of substance abuse (1-3)
    -substance is taken in larger amounts or oveer longer period of time than intended

    -persistent desire or unscucesful efforts to cut down or control substance abuse

    -great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substances, use substance, or recover from its effects

  14. Characteristics of substance abuse (4-5)
    -important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced becuase of substance abuse

    -continued use of subtsnce despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent osychological or physical problem hat is caused by the substance
  15. Tolerance DSM IV
    -need for greater amount of the substance in order to acheive intoxication or desired effect

    -markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount
  16. Withdrawal DSM IV
    characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance

    -the same or closely related to sybstance take to releive or avoid withdrawal symotoms
  17. (effect of prolonged drug use) tolerance
    -decrease in sensitivity to a drug as a result of exposure to it

    *same drug more doses to feel same way
  18. 2 types of tolerance
    metabolic and functional
  19. (tolerance) Metabolic
    body takes action to limit the amount of durg that reaches the site of action
  20. (tolerance) Functional
    once drug reaches its site of action, it no longer produces the same magnitude of effect

    *less cascade of events will occur as the drug is repeeatedly used