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Amygdala is necessary for..
learning and recalling for pavlovian conditioning
-repeated trals ineffective responses occurred less frequently and effective responses occurred more frequently
*experiment: cats needed less time to escape from puzzle box
Thordlike: Law of Effect (3)
- -succesful responses were stamped in by the experience, ocurred more frequently
- *satisfying consequences
-Unsuccessful responses, those producing annoying consequences were stamped out and occured less frequently
***some consequences streghtened behavior and some consequences weakened behavior
(B.F Skinner) Reinforcement
increases the probability that a behavior will occur
(B.F Skinner) Punishment
decreases the probability that a behavior will occur
2 important areas for dopamine
tegmental field area and substantia nigra
Dopamine is important for...
reward and reinforcement
WHats nuclues accumbens important for?
its just as important as dopamine for behaviors directed at rewards
COnditioned place preference and Dopamine
rats were given drugs that stimulated dopamine in dark side and saline shot on the brighter side.
*rats would prefer to hangout in the dark
Abusing drugs causes the release of
experiment: if dopamine receptors are blocked...
less activiation of the levers will happen
Substance abuse definiton
maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by 3 or more symsptoms occuring at any time in the same 12 month span...
Characteristics of substance abuse (1-3)
-substance is taken in larger amounts or oveer longer period of time than intended
-persistent desire or unscucesful efforts to cut down or control substance abuse
-great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substances, use substance, or recover from its effects
Characteristics of substance abuse (4-5)
-important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced becuase of substance abuse
-continued use of subtsnce despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent osychological or physical problem hat is caused by the substance
Tolerance DSM IV
-need for greater amount of the substance in order to acheive intoxication or desired effect
-markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount
Withdrawal DSM IV
characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance
-the same or closely related to sybstance take to releive or avoid withdrawal symotoms
(effect of prolonged drug use) tolerance
-decrease in sensitivity to a drug as a result of exposure to it
*same drug more doses to feel same way
2 types of tolerance
metabolic and functional
body takes action to limit the amount of durg that reaches the site of action
once drug reaches its site of action, it no longer produces the same magnitude of effect
*less cascade of events will occur as the drug is repeeatedly used