LA Sx, Final, III

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  1. What cancer is responsible for 12% of carcasses condemned at slaughter?
    squamous cell carcinoma
  2. What breeds and coat colors have higher incidence of SCC?
    • white faced breeds- no pigment around eye
    • herefords & polled hereford crosses
    • holsteins and crosses
  3. What are some differentials you need to rule out when you suspect SCC?
    • dermoid
    • pink eye
  4. Where is SCC most likely to be located on the face?
    • dorsal lateral limbus (jxn of cornea and sclera)
    • can progress to cornea and entire eye
    • 3rd eyelid
  5. How old are animals usually when diagnosed with SCC? what environmental factors can contribute?
    • >5yrs old
    • high UV radiation- high altitudes or near equator
  6. Before doing surgery on a cow with SCC what should we check out and why?
    • check for pregnancy
    • age the cow (teeth)
    • general health status
    • extent of involvement
    • may choose not to do sx ($) to save animal- send to market instead
  7. What is the surgical procedure for SCC cases caught early/minimal involvement on eye limbus?
    • inject retractor mm's
    • apply pressure to lid margin to prolapse eye
    • shave lesion off cornea/sclera w/ #22 blade
  8. If there is SCC with extensive involvement of the eye ball that does not involve any bone what is the surgical procedure?
    eye ablation
  9. What type of LA blocks do we use with eye ablations?
    • 1.Peterson nerve block
    • 2.LA into depths of orbit- 20-30mL dorsal and ventral to the dorsal edge of orbit
    • 3.infiltrate the eyelid
  10. What is the best hemorrhage control in an eye ablation?
    • rapidly suturing the skin shut
    • or packing orbit with sterile gauze and removing in 3-4 days
  11. What is the best way to dehorn animals?
    breed horns out!
  12. What are reasons we dehorn?
    reduce injury to pen mates and humans
  13. What are some negative things about dehorning?
    • cost- reduced wt gain
    • reduced natural protection- coyotes
  14. What are the dehorning methods we can use in yound animals?
    • dehorning paste
    • hot iron
    • tube dehorner
  15. What is a negative factor of dehorning paste?
    • mother can lick it off
    • can drip into eye and damage it
  16. What are some dehorning methods/instruments used in older animals? 5
    • Barnes dehorner
    • Convex dehorner
    • Keystone/Guillatine Dehorner
    • saws
    • tipping horns
  17. What anesthesia is used when dehorning adults?
    • common to not use anesthesia at all
    • cornual nerve block
  18. T or F: Dehorning powder is great to use to control bleeding?
    False- not effective and not recommended
  19. What is the best way to control bleeding during adult dehorning?
    grasping artery with good quality needle holders and twisting until it breaks
  20. When do we do cosmetic dehorning?
    • if we need minimal after care requirements
    • or if we need rapid healing
  21. What is the general procedure in a cosmetic dehorning?
    • clip and scrub
    • incise skin 10-15mm from horn and extend 50mm toward midline, also extend 50mm ventrolateral
    • dissect skin away
    • remove horn with saw
    • suture skin completely closed over area
  22. T or F: it is common to not use anesthesia on adult goat dehorning?
    False- some adult goats go into shock/die if no anesthesia used
  23. What are the common local anesthetic blocks used in adult goat dehorning?
    • ring block
    • regional blocks- lacrimal, intratrochlear
  24. What instrument is used to dehorn an adult goat? Do we bandage?
    • saw
    • yes bandage the head
  25. What are some complications of dehorning?
    • 1. scur formation
    • 2. excessive hemorrhage
    • 3. sinusitis
  26. What is the best way to prevent excessive hemorrhage?
    • making the cut at the proper level
    • if the cut is too superficial it bleeds ALOT compared to an adequate deep cut with only 1-2 bleeding vessels
  27. When do we see sinusitis as a complication of dehorning? how do we treat?
    • rain immediatley after
    • tx= flushing with non irritating antiseptic soln, antibiotics, sometimes drainage if chronic
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LA Sx, Final, III
2012-12-13 20:11:48
LA Sx Final III

LA Sx, Final, III
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