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What cancer is responsible for 12% of carcasses condemned at slaughter?
squamous cell carcinoma
What breeds and coat colors have higher incidence of SCC?
- white faced breeds- no pigment around eye
- herefords & polled hereford crosses
- holsteins and crosses
What are some differentials you need to rule out when you suspect SCC?
Where is SCC most likely to be located on the face?
- dorsal lateral limbus (jxn of cornea and sclera)
- can progress to cornea and entire eye
- 3rd eyelid
How old are animals usually when diagnosed with SCC? what environmental factors can contribute?
- >5yrs old
- high UV radiation- high altitudes or near equator
Before doing surgery on a cow with SCC what should we check out and why?
- check for pregnancy
- age the cow (teeth)
- general health status
- extent of involvement
- may choose not to do sx ($) to save animal- send to market instead
What is the surgical procedure for SCC cases caught early/minimal involvement on eye limbus?
- inject retractor mm's
- apply pressure to lid margin to prolapse eye
- shave lesion off cornea/sclera w/ #22 blade
If there is SCC with extensive involvement of the eye ball that does not involve any bone what is the surgical procedure?
What type of LA blocks do we use with eye ablations?
- 1.Peterson nerve block
- 2.LA into depths of orbit- 20-30mL dorsal and ventral to the dorsal edge of orbit
- 3.infiltrate the eyelid
What is the best hemorrhage control in an eye ablation?
- rapidly suturing the skin shut
- or packing orbit with sterile gauze and removing in 3-4 days
What is the best way to dehorn animals?
breed horns out!
What are reasons we dehorn?
reduce injury to pen mates and humans
What are some negative things about dehorning?
- cost- reduced wt gain
- reduced natural protection- coyotes
What are the dehorning methods we can use in yound animals?
- dehorning paste
- hot iron
- tube dehorner
What is a negative factor of dehorning paste?
- mother can lick it off
- can drip into eye and damage it
What are some dehorning methods/instruments used in older animals? 5
- Barnes dehorner
- Convex dehorner
- Keystone/Guillatine Dehorner
- tipping horns
What anesthesia is used when dehorning adults?
- common to not use anesthesia at all
- cornual nerve block
T or F: Dehorning powder is great to use to control bleeding?
False- not effective and not recommended
What is the best way to control bleeding during adult dehorning?
grasping artery with good quality needle holders and twisting until it breaks
When do we do cosmetic dehorning?
- if we need minimal after care requirements
- or if we need rapid healing
What is the general procedure in a cosmetic dehorning?
- clip and scrub
- incise skin 10-15mm from horn and extend 50mm toward midline, also extend 50mm ventrolateral
- dissect skin away
- remove horn with saw
- suture skin completely closed over area
T or F: it is common to not use anesthesia on adult goat dehorning?
False- some adult goats go into shock/die if no anesthesia used
What are the common local anesthetic blocks used in adult goat dehorning?
- ring block
- regional blocks- lacrimal, intratrochlear
What instrument is used to dehorn an adult goat? Do we bandage?
What are some complications of dehorning?
- 1. scur formation
- 2. excessive hemorrhage
- 3. sinusitis
What is the best way to prevent excessive hemorrhage?
- making the cut at the proper level
- if the cut is too superficial it bleeds ALOT compared to an adequate deep cut with only 1-2 bleeding vessels
When do we see sinusitis as a complication of dehorning? how do we treat?
- rain immediatley after
- tx= flushing with non irritating antiseptic soln, antibiotics, sometimes drainage if chronic