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What type of teeth do horses have? What does this mean?
- enamel extends entire length of tooth
- tooth continually erupts and wearns down
What is the crown? clinical crown?
- crown= portion of the tooth that is visible
- clinical crown= part erupted into mouth
What is the reserve crown?
the portion that is buried in the bone
Rate of wear of teeth depends on what?
- age and diet
- temporary teeth wear faster
Do teeth GROW or ERUPT?
Where are tooth roots anchored?
What is wider- the mandible or the maxilla? what does this do?
- maxilla is wider
- helps grinding motion
Are molar and premolar surfaces rough or smooth? why?
- composed of enamel, cementum and dentin
- the dentin wears faster than the rest making a rough grinding surface
Where are sharp points of teeth usually found?
- lateral/buccal side of upper teeth
- inner/lingual side of lower teeth
What teeth do we use to age a horse? what are the years?
- incisors- can use temporary or permanents
- Permanent Incisors 1/2/3 @ 2.5/3.5/4.5 years
All permanent incisors are in wear when?
The cup/infundibulum of incisors is used to help age horses- when do cups leave?
- 1st Incisor @ 6 yrs
- 2nd @ 7 years
- 3rd @ 8 years
The dental star/pulp cavity is also used to help age a horse- what ages does it correlate to?
dental star first seen on 1st incisor @ 6-8 years old
What is a procedure to modify teeth so horse looks younger?
Bishoping- used in the past when selling horses
The roots of what teeth are in the maxillary sinus?
- last 4 upper cheek teeth
- (PM4, M 1-3)
What happens to cause hooks and ramps?
occur as a result of improper rostral to caudal alignment of mandible and maxilla
What are the 2 aims of good dental care?
- 1. reduce pain
- 2. prolong tooth life- which prolongs life of animal
What is quidding?
when the horse packs foodstuffs between the cheek and sharp points to help minimize the pain
What are caps?
- temporary pre-molars that are only partially detached as the permanents move in
- we pull them off
When do we recommend a horse gets a dental exam when he is up to 7 yrs old?
twice a year- because points start to form early/faster
What is the function of wolf teeth? and when do we see them? What tooth are they actually? why do we remove?
- no function
- erupt at 6-8 months
- really PM 1
- remove b/c interfere with bit
What is a blind wolf tooth?
PM1 that is farther rostral than a normal wolf tooth
What are the 5 essentials for a proper dental evaluation?
- 1. full mouth speculum
- 2. light source
- 3. dental mirror
- 4. dental pick
- 5. restraint- physical or chemical
When a horse is >15 years (geriatric) when do we recommend tooth care exams? why?
- every 6 months
- b/c periodontal disease is found in 50-60%
- increased spacing in b/w teeth
What is the oldest tooth in the mouth that is a problem for older horses?
- 1st molar
- frequently causes problems
When the infundibulum wears out does the tooth wear faster or slower?
faster after infundibulum worn off
What do we commonly see in older horses that we cant do much about?
wave mouth- because infundibulum wearing away
What is a common secondary problem to apical tooth infections?
What are the 2 methods available for dental removal surgery?
extraction and repulsion (or combo)
Which of the 2 methods for tooth removal surgery require anesthesia? which has fewer complications?
- repulsion needs anesthesia
- extraction has fewer complications
How do extractors work?
applied to twist the tooth to break the periodontal ligament (time consuming)
Why do we need to temporarily pack the socket after tooth extraction?
to fill with blood and form framework for granulation tissue to fill socket
What is the general procedure of tooth repulsion?
- raise flap to get access to sinus
- use trephine to cut thru upper or lower jaw just above or below the tooth root
- punch used to drive tooth out
- packing after
What are complications of tooth repulsion?
- longer time for granulation tissue to form (bc no clot in alveolus)
- greater chance of fragments that complicate healing
What is the dental formaul for the horse permanent teeth?
I 3/3 C 1/1 (males) PM 3-4/3 M 3/3
What teeth are present at birth or withint the first week?
- 1st deciduous incisors
- all deciduous premolars
What is the rule of thumb for temporary/decisuous incisors erupting?
- I 1 = 6-8days
- I2 = 6-8 weeks
- I3= 6-8 months
Are there any temporary molars?
NO temporary molars
For a complete oral exam what is usually required?
sedation and full mouth speculum
What are some clinical signs there are tooth problems?
- 1. failure to maintain good general condition
- 2. dropping food from mouth while chewing
- 3. presence of whole grain in the feces
Where do we start when floating teeth?
bottom teeth- remove medial points
What is the common term for brachygnathism?
- parrot mouth
- short mandible, so upper jaw looks like its sticking way out
What does Sow mouth mean?
- mandible is too long, so lower jaw sticks way out
In brachygnathism b/c of the conformation in the mouth where do we find problems?
2nd upper premolar doesnt touch the lower, so hook is on rostral side of upper PM & hook on caudal side of lower 3rd molar
If you remove a cap (retained premolar) too early what can happen?
- infundibulum exposed before its fully closed and cause bacteria to gain access to alveolus!
- (this only happens on top teeth not bottom)
What are some clinical signs that premolars and molars are diseased?
- difficulty chewing/mainting condition
- boney swelling over tooth root area
- unilateral nasal discharge that STINKS!
What are some causes of diseased premolars and molars?
- 1. patent infundibulum (uppers only)
- 2. tooth fracture
- 3. periodontitis
What is an important structure to avoid in tooth repulsion?how do we avoid?
- nasolacrimal duct
- draw a line from medial canthus of eye to ventral nostril, and stay ventral to this
Why are radiographs used in tooth extractions?
- to locate exactly what tooth is involved
- DONT take out healthy teeth!
What is endodontics?
root canal for horses
What is the approach for endodontics/root canal in horses?
- approach tooth from the root side thru mandible or maxilla
- file used to clean out pulp cavity
- pulp cavity folled and tooth left in place