Psychology Chapter 7

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Psychology Chapter 7
2012-12-01 22:26:45

psych ch7
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  1. Health Psychologists
    psychologists who study how people's thoughts and behavior affect their health
  2. Stress
    the response to events that disturb, or threaten to disturb, your physical or psychological balance
  3. Stressors
    internal or external events that challenge or threaten you
  4. Frustrations
    feelings that occur whenever you are hindered or prevented from reaching goals you seek
  5. Conflict
    a feeling of being pulled between two opposing desires or goals
  6. Approach-Approach Conflict
    win-win, very low stress
  7. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
    lose-lose, moderate stress
  8. Approach-Avoidance Conflict
    • most stressful, desirable and indesirable consequences form a goal
    • resolve by analyze
    • pros/cons, accept reality of risk
  9. Fight-Or-Flight Response
    a rapid physiological reaction by the sympathetic nervous system that prepares you either to fight or take flight from an immediate threat
  10. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    Hans Selye's model of stress in which an event that threatens an organism's well-being (a stressor) leads to a three-stage bodily response: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
  11. Alarm
    • fight or flight response
    • an initial shock hits your body
    • hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine are released
  12. Resistance
    • most body functions return to normal levelsĀ 
    • stress hormones continue to circulate
    • look fine, but your are not
  13. Exhaustion
    • you become more vulnerable to disease
    • premature againg due to wear and tear on the system
  14. Psychophysiological Disorders
    stress related physical illnesses
  15. Immune System
    • the body's primary defense against disease
    • 50-70% of all physical illnesses are related to stress
    • the longer stress lasts in your life the more likely you are to become ill
  16. Richard Lazarus
    cognitive appraisal
  17. Cognitive Appraisal
    • is the situation a threat?
    • how big a threat is it?
    • what resources do you have for dealing with the threat?
  18. Primary Appraisal
    • quick evaluation of situation
    • assess what is happening, is it threatening?
    • if you decide to take action you move to secondary appraisal
  19. Secondary Appraisal
    • you decide if you have ability to cope with the stressor
    • the more confidence you have in dealing with the stressor the less stress you experience
  20. Problem-Focused Coping
    • a strategy aimed at reducing stress by overcoming the source of the problem
    • use this when you think you can overcome the problem
  21. Emotion-Focused Coping
    • consists of efforts to manage your emotions' reactions to stressors
    • con't handle the problem you use this coping method
  22. Actual Control vs. Perceived Control
    ex. superstitious rituals=percieved control
  23. Learned Helplessness
    a defeated and helpless state of mind produced by repeatedly being exposed to uncontrollable life events
  24. Procrastination
    delaying the start and completion of planned problem solving
  25. Type-A Behavior Pattern
    • a pattern of behaviors and emotions characterized by cometitiveness, inpatience, ambition, hosttility, and a hard-driving approach to life
    • most likely to have health problems, heart disease especially
  26. Type-B Behavior Pattern
    a pattern of behaviors and emotions characterized by a patient, relazed, easygoing approach to life, with little hurry or hostility
  27. Pessimistic Explanatory Style
    • explains negative events in life as being caused by internal factors that are stable and global
    • susceptible to depression and illness
  28. Optimistic Explanatory Style
    explains negative events as due to external factors that are unstable or changeable and isolated
  29. Acculturative Stress
    • the stress resulting from the pressure of adapting to a new culture
    • best to integrate new culture with your original culture
  30. Social Support
    helpful coping resources that friends and other people probide when you are in a stressful situation
  31. Aerobic Exercise
    • sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness
    • 12-20 minutes
    • heightens supply of modd enhancing neurotransmitters
  32. Progressive Relaxation
    a relazation technique that involved progressively relazing muscle groups in your body, usually starting at the head and slowly moving down to the legs and feet