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What is the reference pertaining to CDE?
What is the main cause of collateral damage?
Positive Identification (PID) of the target causes 70% of CD.
Who determines the non-combatant casualty cutoff value (NCV)?
The President and the SecDef.
What are the operational imperatives of CDE?
- Force Protection
- Collateral Damage
What are the commander's responsibilities for collateral damage?
Commanders are responsible to evaluate and balance mission requipremetns and threat to friendly forces (i.e.: Force Protection) while taking all reasonable steps to mitigate the potential for Collateral Damage.
What does table 4 deal with?
What does table 5 deal with?
What does NCC stand for?
Nearest Collateral Concern
What are the four points for delivery heading?
0/360 ,90, 180, 270
What is required by CDE 5 High?
STAR process approval.
Why is Delay Fuze (DF) is used?
What does CDE 4 require?
A delivery heading.
What units of measure are used with PGMs and ASUGMs?
What units of measure are used with SSBMs?
What are the 5 ways to mitigate effects?
- Delay Fuze
- Variable Time
- Delivery Heading
- Aimpoint Offset
What is used to mitigate Delivery Area?
What does the Joint CDE Methodology provide?
It provides commanders with a simple, logical, and repeatable process to measure, mitigate, and assess collateral risk in support of the planning and execution of combat operations.
At what command level was CDE previously preserved?
The Combatant Command (COCOM) level.
What are the 5 questions of the CDE methodology?
- Can I positively identify the object or person I want to attack as a legitimate military target authorized by the current ROE?
- Are there colalteral objects/persons or significant environmental concerns within the effects range of the weapon I would like to use?
- Can I mitigate damage to those collateral concerns by attacking with a different weapon or method of engagement, yet still accomplish my mission?
- If not, how many non-combatants do I think will be injured/killed?
- Are the collateral effects of my attack excessive in relation to the expected military advantage gained, and do I need to call my higher commander for permission to attack this target based on the ROE in effect?
Is the international definitioni of Collateral Damage ratified by the U.S.?
What is the U.S. definition of Collateral Damage?
Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Such damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the attack.
What are the 2 categories of Collateral Objects?
- Category 1: Most Sensitive
- Category 2: Less Sensitive
What are the Category 1 'Most Sensitive' Collateral Objects?
- Diplomatic facilities
- Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
- Medical facilities
- Public education facilities
- Civilian refugee camps
- Prisoner of War (POW) camps
- Facilities with environmental concerns
- Dams and dikes
What are the Category 2 'Less Sensitive' Collateral Objects?
- Non-military billeting (Housing, Hotels/Motels)
- Civilian meeting places (Arenas, Theaters, Parks, Stadiums, Markets, Convention centers)
- Public utilities (Power, Water, Electirc, Gas, Fire & Police stations, Banks, etc.)
- Agricultural storage or processing facilities
- Facilities whose function is unknown
What are 'dual-use' targets?
Targets characterized as having both a military and civilian purpose/function.
What is the commander's responsibility when declaring protected structures dual-use?
Commanders are responsible to determine to predominant functionality of protected structures based on current intelligence.
What are Human Shields?
- Human Shields are non-combatant personnel intentioally placed around a valid military target to hinder attack of that target.
- Human Shields may be willing accomplices or unwilling prisoners.
- Human Shields are treated as Category 1+.
What are the commander's responsibilities toward Human Shields?
- Commanders are responsible to identify and track Huan Shields and to take steps to mitigate the effects of combat on these individuals.
- Human Shields must be accounted for in Casualty Estimateion based on the most current intelligence available at the time of the attack.
When is Collateral Damage allowable?
Collateral Damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the attack.
How do commanders determine if Collateral Damage is allowable?
- Within the Military Decision Making Process
- Aided by a Collateral Damage Estimation
- Considering both Missions and Objectives
What does 'STAR' stand for?
Sensitive Target Approval and Review
What are Sensitive Targets?
- Targets assessed as CDE 5 High
- Targets designated by the President or SecDef as those whose engagement presents unacceptable strategic risk.
What are the 2 components of PID/CID?
- Identification of the target's function, activity, purpose, or identity.
- Geospatial definition of the target.
What does a target require to be 'lawful'?
- Linkage to Objectives (Military Necessity)
What are the 3 main causes of Collateral Damage?
- Incorrect identification - 70%
- Weapone malfunctioni - 22%
- Conscious decision - 7%
What are the three munitions categories?
- Precision Guided Munitions (PGM)
- Air-to-Surface Unguided Munitions (ASUGM)
- Surface-to-Surface Ballistic Munitions (SSBM)
What are the tables associate with each munitions catergory?
- PGM - Table A
- ASUGM - Table B
- SSBM - Table C
What are the primary causes of damage for each level/table?
- 1: Fragmentation
- 2: Fragmentation
- 3Au/B/C: Fragmentation
- 3Am: Debris/Ejecta
- 4: Blast
What number is used for TLE?
- For Observer Adjusted missions: 137m or 450ft (SSBM only)
- For all others: 6m, 20ft
Is CDE a concern for a Troops In Contact (TIC) or other active combat situations?
What is the basis for Circular Error for each munitions category?
- PGM: Weapon guidance system (i.e.: smart bombs)
- ASUGM: Weapon delivery platform (aircraft)
- SSBM: Weapon system (artillery)
When is a single heading required?
For multiple warhead delivery.
What are tables 2B and 2C used to determine?
Feasibility of attacking with a particular weapon platform (2B: aircraft) or weapon system (2C: artillery) considering its TE90.
What type of trajectory do warheads seek?
Warheads always seek a ballistic trajectory.
What is the relationship between range error and deflection error?
- The range error is usually double the deflection error.
- The deflection error is usually half the range error.
How many CDR tables are there?
- There are 10 tables.
- Two are for reference (2B, 2C).
What are the rules for approach heading?
- Heading must be parallel to and away from the collateral concern.
- Never set the heading toward an outdoor collateral concern.
- The minimum heading spread is 30 degrees.
What are the three collateral concerns that receive a CF of 1.0?
- Indoor in the inner annulus
What are the two CF values? Where do they cut off?
- CF 1.0 is the inner annulus.
- CF .25 is the outer anulus.
What target from a target set should be nominated?
The target with the most restricive call or, if all targets have the same level, the target whose munition is furthest down on the 3 table.
What changes are made to the call when promoting a level 5?
Cross off and mark all entries as level 5. If promoting a 5 High, mark all entries as 5 High.
How are the inner anulus and outer anulus calculated?
By dividing the Level 4 ring in half. The inner anulus is the inner half, the outer anulus is the outer half.
Who establishes Population Density Table (Table 5P)?
It is established by the COCOM and varies by operational area.
What is the rule when evaluating indoor and outdoor targets?
The indoor target is one table lower than the outdoor target. If the outdoor target is Level 3 unmitigated, the indoor target is Level 3 mitigated. If the outdoor target is Level 3 mitigated, the indoor target is Level 4.
To what types of weapons does CDE not apply?
Is CDE required for direct fire weapons?
No. Surface-to-surface, rotary wing or fixed-wing air-to-surface weapons of less than 105mm are excluded due to operational practicality.
Does CDE account for weapons malfunction, delivery errors or delivery system operator judgement?
Does CDE account for unknown transient civilian or noncombatant personnel and/or equipment?
Are individual marking or adjusting rounds accounted for in CDE?
Not when using SSBM weapons and the Observer Adjust method of engagement.
Are cluster munitions or ICM munitions usable in CDE?
Only up to Level 3.
Are Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAPs) or extended range SSBM munitions usable in CDE?
Only up to Level 3.
What is CER? How is is calculated?
Collateral Effects Radius is the total error associated with a specific munition and method of employment (the CEP) and the radius of the warhead effects.
What is the CHA?
The Collateral Hazard Area. It is formed from the Collateral Effects Radius (CER).
How old can imagery used for CDE be?
Not older than 90 days. Up to 180 days if there are no indications of change in the target area.
What are the two categories of Human Shields? Are they collateral concerns?
- Voluntary and involuntary.
- Only involuntary human shields are collateral concerns.
What is required of weapons that are in the Level 3A 'Mitigated' column?
That they can be delay fuzed to achieve 100% burial below grade prior to detonation.