Physiology Test 4

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Physiology Test 4
2012-11-29 02:58:02

Digestion and Secretion
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  1. Humans must get basic organic molecules from food for what three reason
    • 1. make ATP
    • 2. build tissues
    • 3. serves as cofactors and coenzymes
  2. carbohydrates, fats, and proteins broken down to building blocks during digestion
  3. building blocks taken into the bloodstream by absorption
  4. By what process does digestion break down polymers into monomers?
    hydolysis reactions- adding water
  5. Where is the digestive tract considered to be in relation to the body?
  6. indigestible fiber- wood fiber
  7. Six functions of the digestive tract
    • 1. motility
    • 2. secretion
    • 3. digestion
    • 4. absorption
    • 5. storage and elimination
    • 6. immune barrier
  8. taking food into the mouth
  9. chewing
  10. swallowing
  11. one way automatic rhythmic movement through the GI tract starting at the esophagus after swallowing
  12. churning as in the stomach
  13. digestive enzymes, acid, mucus released outside an organ or tract
  14. hormones to regulate digestion released within an organ or tract
  15. breaking food down into smaller units
  16. passing broken down food into blood or lymph
  17. simple columnar epithelium with tight junctions to prevent swallowed pathogens from entering the body
    immune barrier
  18. Parts of the GI tract
    mouth- stomach- pharynx- esophagus- cardiac sphincter- stomach- pyloric sphincter- duodenum (SI)- jujenum (SI)- ileum (SI)- large intestines- rectum- anus
  19. length of the gastrointestinal tract
    30 feet
  20. other organs that help the digestive tract but are not considered directly part of the tract
    accessory organs
  21. 6 accessory organs
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • gallbladder
  22. how many adult teeth do most people have?
  23. GI tract layers
  24. inner secretory and absorptive layer that may be folded to increase surface area
    mucosa tunic
  25. layer that contains glands and is very vascular to pick up nutrients
    submucosa tunic
  26. smooth muscle layer responsible for peristalsis and segmentation
    muscularis tunic
  27. outer binding and protective layer
    serosa tunic
  28. stimulates and speeds up esophagus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, gallbladder, and first part of large intestine by using parasympathetic division of GI tract
    vagus nerve
  29. stimulates and speeds up lower large intestine by using the parasympathetic division of the GI tract
    spinal nerves in sacral region
  30. slows down and inhibits peristalsis and secretion by stimulating contraction of sphincters
    sympathetic division of GI tract
  31. paracrine signals and sensory neurons in gut wall
    intrinsic regulation
  32. contains mucus and amylase to start digestion of starch and carbs
  33. antimicrobial agen in saliva
  34. How many muscles coordinatedly contract in deglutination?
    25 PAIRS
  35. Three parts of deglutination
    • oral
    • pharyngeal
    • esophageal
  36. voluntary part of deglutination where the muscles of mouth and tongue mix food with saliva
  37. initiated by receptors in the posterior oral cavity and oropharynx
  38. covers the nasopharynx
  39. covers the vocal cord
  40. What relaxes in order to allow deglutination?
    upper esophageal sphincter
  41. automatic part of deglutination regulated by the controlled byswallowing center of the brain stem
  42. lump of food moving down the esophagus after swallowing
  43. Mouth, pharynx, and upper esophagus are lined with ___ ____ and innervated by ___ ____ ___.
    skeletal muscles; somatic motor neurons
  44. Lower esophagus is lined with ___ ___ controlled by the ___ ____ ____.
    smooth muscle; autonomic nervous system
  45. length of the esophagus
    10 inches
  46. the esophagus passes through the diaphragm through what structure?
    esophageal hiatus
  47. esophagus is lined with what type of cells?
    nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  48. What sphincter allows food to pass into the stomach but not out
    lower esophageal/ cardiac
  49. 5 functions of the stomach
    • stores food
    • churns food to mix with gastric secretions
    • begins protein digestion
    • kills bacteria in food with stomach acid
    • moves food into small intestine
  50. food passing into the small intestines after going through the stomach
  51. Food is delivered to the ___ region of the stomach.
  52. upper region of the stomach
  53. lower region of the stomach
  54. distal region of the stomach
  55. end of the pyloris and start of the small intestine
    pyloric sphincter
  56. stomach folds in lining
  57. stomach ulcers most occur in what region?
  58. caused by overloading acids on barriers by burning, carbonation, and acidic foods
  59. Located at the base of rugae to make secretory cells
    gastric pits
  60. secrete mucus to help protect stomach lining from acid
    mucus neck cells
  61. secrete HCl acid and intrinsic factor to help small intestine absorb vitamin B12
    parietal cells
  62. secrete pepsinogen
    chief cells
  63. secrete histamine and serotonin as paracrine signals
    enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells
  64. secrete gastrin hormone
    G cells
  65. descrete somatostatin hormone
    D cells
  66. primary active transport of H+ takes place through ____
    H+/ K+ ATPase pumps
  67. Cl- is transported through what process?
    facilitated diffusion
  68. made in G cells and carried to parietal cells in blood to stimulate secretion of HCl
  69. Gastrin stimulates ECL cells to secrete ___.
  70. stimulates parietal cells via H2 receptors
  71. stimulate parietal and ECL cells
    parasympathetic neurons
  72. Main functin of HCl
    drops pH to 2
  73. Describe the process by which HCl drops pH level
    • -Proteins denatured allowing enzyme access.
    • -Pepsinogen converted to active pepsin digests proteins.
    • -Drops pH level
  74. Optimum pH for pepsin activity
  75. Two things that could eat the stomach lining
    acid and pepsin
  76. Three defenses prevent eroding of the stomach lining
    • -adherent layer of mucus with bicarbonate
    • -tight junctions between epithelial cells
    • -rapid epithelial mitosis that replaces epithelium every three days
  77. Stomach is the site of beginning digestion for which molecule?
  78. Starches begin digestion in __
  79. Starch digestion ends in the ___. Why?
    stomach because salivary amylase is not active at pH 2
  80. Only common substances absorbed in the stomach
    alcohol and NSAIDs
  81. erosions of the mucosa of the stomach or duodenum
    peptic ulcers
  82. bacterium that reduces mucosal barriers to acid
    helicobacter pylori
  83. treatment for ulcers is a combination of ___ and ___.
    K+/H+ pump inhibitors and antibiotics
  84. inflammation of the submucosa caused by erosion from acid
  85. needed to stimulate protective alkaline mucus production
  86. Tagamet and Zantac inhibit ___ receptors.
  87. big folds of the small intestine's mucosa and submucosa
    plicae circulares
  88. three sections of the small intestine in order from top to bottom
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  89. mucosa of the small intestine has smaller folds called __?
  90. epithelial plasma membranes are folded into ___
  91. Site of complete digestion of carbs, proteins, and fats
    small intestine
  92. Part of the small intestine that absorbs sugars, lipids, amino acids, calcium, and iron
    duodenum and jejunum
  93. part of the small intestine that absorpbs bile salts, vitamin B12, water, and electrolytes
  94. columnar epithelium with goblet cells
    villi and microvilli
  95. what absorbs sugars and amino acids?
  96. absorbs fatty acids
  97. Lacteal is part of the ___ system.
  98. have microbial properties and secrete antibacterial molecules
    Paneth cells
  99. Paneth cells and mitotic stem cells make up ___.
    intestinal crypts
  100. intestinal enzymes located on villi
    brush border enzymes
  101. Brush border enzymes break 2, 3, 4 carbs apart to make ___.
  102. Monosaccharides are absorbed by ___.
  103. Active sites of brush border enzymes are exposed to ___.
  104. Intestinal peristalsis is week because of pressure where?
    pyloric end
  105. What upsets autonomic peristalic rhythms?
    toxins in small intestine
  106. Stronger function of small intestines and its purpose
    segmentation- to mix the chyme
  107. ___ ___ contractions occur automatically.
    smooth muscle
  108. graded depolarizations produced by pacemaker cells that cause action potentions in muscle cells
    slow waves
  109. What causes smooth muscle to contract automatically?
    slow waves
  110. pacemaker cells of the smooth muscles
    interstitial cells of Cajal
  111. Depolorization fromt he interstitial cells of Cajal opens ___ gated __ channels
    voltage; Ca2+
  112. ___ ___ nervous system stimulates or inhibits cells of Cajal.
    autonomic enteric
  113. Two things of the parasympathetic system that combine to increase amplitude and duration of slow waves
    Acetylcholine and muscarinic ACh receptors
  114. Path of the Large Intestine
    ileocecal valve- cecum- ascending colon- transverse colon- descending colon- sigmoid colon- rectum- anal canal- anus
  115. Four functions of the large intestine
    • -absorptin of water, electrolytes, vitamin K, and some B vitamins
    • -production of vitamin K and B vitamins via microbial organisms
    • -storage of feces
    • -minimal break down of Beta 1, 4 (cellulose) linkages by bacteria
  116. several hundred different species of bacteria that live in the large intestines
    microbial biota
  117. Two categories of intestinal bacteria
    commensal and mutualistic
  118. bacteria that benefit while not harming the host
  119. bacteria that benefit while also benefiting the host
  120. Four benefits of microbes
    • - make vitamin K and some B vitamins
    • -make fatty acids from cellulose for energy
    • -aid absorption of electrolytes and salts
    • -outcompete harmful bacteria
  121. IBS is caused by disruption of normal ___.
  122. How much water is excreted with feces per day?
    200 mL
  123. Stimulates greater salt and water absorption
  124. what secretes aldosterone?
    adrenal gland
  125. Controls defecation voluntarily
    external anal sphincter
  126. contract to increase pressure as the anal sphincters relax
    longitudinal rectal muscles
  127. As material passes to the rectum, PRESSURE ___ and the internal sphincter ___.
    increases; relaxes
  128. largest abdominal organ
  129. first stop for blood from intestines
  130. regenerative liver cells
  131. capillaries that separate hepatic plates
  132. True or False: The liver is very permeable.
  133. delivers products of digestion absorbed in intestines to the liver
    hepatic portal vein
  134. blood leaves the liver after circulating through its capillaries through the ___
    hepatic vein
  135. formed by hepatocytes and arranged as liver lobules with hepatic arteries, hepatic portal veins, and a central vein
    hepatic plates
  136. bile secreted by hepatocytes is released into the __ ___
    bile canaliculi
  137. Five functions of the liver
    • detox of blood
    • carbohydrate metabolism
    • fat metabolism
    • protein synthesis
    • secretion of bile
  138. Where are molecules in bile reabsorbed to be returned to the liver?
    small intestine
  139. How much bile does the liver make per day
    250-1500 ml
  140. Five components of bile
    • bile pigments (bilirubin)
    • bile salts
    • phospholipids (lecithin)
    • cholesterol
    • inorganic ions
  141. breaks large fat down into small beads of fat
  142. what acts as an emulsifier
  143. color of bilirubin
  144. a not water-soluble component derived from hemoglobin and produced in spleen, liver, and bone marrow
  145. Bilirubin IS OR IS NOT directly filtered by kidneys and secreted by bile?
    is not
  146. conjugates with bilirubin to make the bilirubin water soluble
    glucuronic acid
  147. color of biliverdin
  148. When can bilirubin be secreted in bile?
    when it is water soluble and conjugated
  149. component that makes feces brown and is converted from bilirubin by bacteria in the small intestine
  150. percentage of urobilinogen absorbed and taken to liver
  151. Some urobilinogen can be used in the blood and kidneys to make )).
  152. made from bile acids conjugated with glycineortaurine
    bile salts
  153. derived from cholesterol and contain four polar groups on each molecule
    bile acids
  154. Two examples of bile acids
    cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid
  155. most bile acids is recycled through ___ ___.
    enterohepatic circulation
  156. How much cholesterol is broken down and lost in feces?
    1/2 gram
  157. bile salts form ___ with polar groups toward water
  158. functional bile salts contain __
  159. Three ways for the liver to detox the blood
    • secreted into bile
    • phagocytized by Kupffer cells in sinusoids
    • chemically altered by hepatocytes
  160. converted into urea
  161. returned to the blood to be filtered by the kidneys
  162. altered and secreted into bile
  163. Two things the liver stores blood glucose as and the processes by which it is done
    • glycogen- glycogenesis
    • triglycerides- lipogenesis
  164. What happens to glucose that the liver breaks down to glycogen?
    stored or release into blood
  165. can be made by liver from glucose by process of ___.
    amino acids; guconeogenesis
  166. __ can be made from fatty acids by the liver by the process of ___.
    Ketones; ketogenesis
  167. stores and concentrates bile from the liver
  168. tract of the gallbladder
    liver- bile ducts- hepatic duct- cystic duct- gallbladder- cystic duct- common bile duct- duodenum
  169. sphincter located in duodenum
    sphincter of ampulla
  170. make insulin and glucagon in pancreas
    Islets of Langerhans cells
  171. make pancreatic juice to be delivered to the duodenum
    acini cells
  172. Endocrine or Exocrine? insulin and glucagon of the pancreas
  173. Endocrine or Exocrine? pancreatic juice of pancreas
  174. bicarbonate + 20 digestive enzymes
    pancreatic juice
  175. made from CO2 from the blood by cells lining ductules
  176. Process by which bicarbonate is made
    • -carbonic acid made
    • -carbonic acid dissociates to form H+ and bicarbonate
  177. Bicarbonate is ___ into ___, and H+ is ___ into ___.
    secreted; pancreatic juice; absorbed; blood
  178. Bicarbonate is countertransported with __.
  179. condition in which a person has trouble secreting bicarbonate, thus destroying the pancreas
    cystic fibrosis
  180. inactive until they reach the small intestine
    pancreatic enzymes
  181. activates trypsinogen
  182. activated enzyme to digest protein
  183. primary stage of digestion
  184. starch digestion continues in small intestines with ___ ___
    pancreatic amylase
  185. Two components of brush border cells
    tripsin and enzymes
  186. Two ways monosaccharides are absorbed across the epithelium
    • - secondary active transport with sodium
    • - facilitated diffusion with high glucose
  187. formed from pepsin in stomach during digestion of proteins
    short-chain polypeptides
  188. Five enzymes to finish protein digestion
    • -pancreatic trypsin
    • -chymo trypsin
    • -elastase
    • -carboxypeptidase
    • -aminopeptidase
  189. Digestion of proteins end in the ...?
    duodenum and jejunum
  190. During the absorption of proteins, ____________ are cotransported with sodium
    free amino acids
  191. Dipeptides and tripeptides cross via what?
    secondary active transport
  192. Aids dipeptides and tripeptides in active transport
    H+ gradient
  193. pH range needed for protein digestion
  194. Fat digestion begins where?
  195. breaks down or emulsifies fat
  196. breaks fat down into fatty acids
  197. stripped to have two molecules outside of the gradient and one inside
  198. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are transported to ___
    brush border cells
  199. Fatty acids and monoglycerides in epithelial cells are turned into what three things?
    • triglycerides
    • cholesterol
    • phospholipids
  200. Fatty acides combine with proteins to make __.
  201. main source of muscle energy
    fatty acids
  202. Two components of fat molecules
    free fatty acids and glycerol
  203. ___ ___ drops chylomicrons into the bloodstream at the ___ ___.
    lymphatic system; thoracic duct
  204. agent that allows chylomicrons to bind to receptors on the capillary epithelium within muscles and adipose tissue
  205. releases free fatty acids for use by muscle cells or storage by fat cells
    lipoprotein lipase
  206. Formed from the combination of cholesterol and triglycerides with apolipoproteins
    very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
  207. removed triglycerides which transport cholesterol to organs
    low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
  208. cholesterol is excess returned to the liver
    high-density lipids (HDLs)
  209. primary function of the kidneys
    blood pressure regulation
  210. Four functions of the kidney
    • plasma volume/ BP
    • waste products in blood
    • electrolyte balance
    • plasma pH
  211. functional unit of the kidney responible for forming urine
  212. how many nephrons per kidney?
    > one million
  213. Three functions of nephrons
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
    • secretion
  214. Made up of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
    renal corpuscle
  215. What is and is not secreted from the Bowman's capsule?
    plasma is and blood is not
  216. Function of the renal corpuscle
  217. filtration slits of the kidney
    glomerular capsule
  218. Volumes of filtrate produced by BP
    • men- 125mL/min
    • women- 115mL/min
    • totals- 180L/day
  219. connected to Bowman's capsule for reabsorption
    proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
  220. returns most filtrate to peritubular capillaries
    reabsorption of PCT
  221. How much urine excreted in 24 hours maximum?
    1-2 L
  222. Minimum amount of urine that must be excreted per day
    400 mL
  223. Sodium goes out of filtrate by
    active transport
  224. Two things that passively follow sodium out of PCT
    chlorine and water
  225. part of Loop of Henle that is permeable to water; impermeable to salt
    descending limb
  226. part of Loop of Henle that is impermeable to water' permeable to salt
    ascending limb
  227. allow descending and ascending limbs of Loop to increase osmolality in medulla
    countercurrent flow and proximity
  228. An increase in osmolality in ___ ___ causes more filtrate to be delivered to ___ ___.
    descending loop; ascending loop
  229. Pumping sodium out of ascending loop __ osmolality causing increased ___ to diffuse out of ___ ___.
    increases; water; descending loop
  230. __ filtrate causes more sodium transport, which results in __ osmalality around ___ ___.
    increased; increased; descending loop
  231. covering of Loop of Henle for secretion
    vasa recta
  232. important component of countercurrent multiplier
    vasa recta
  233. Vasa recta recirculates salt trapping some in the ___.
  234. what reabsorbs water coming from where on the loop of henle?
    ascending loop; descending loop
  235. hyperosmotic urine produced due to maintenance of solute gradients
  236. contributes to osmolality in medulla
  237. urea diffuses to __ __.
    descending loop
  238. plays important role in water conservation because it is impermeable to salt in the medulla and permeable to urea
    collecting duct
  239. permeability of water in the collecting duct varies because of
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  240. Three components of urine
    • 95% water
    • urea and uric acid
    • trace amino acids
  241. causes regulation and secretion of urine
    creatine and urea
  242. imparied ability to excrete wastes and regulate blood volume, pH, and electrolyes- resulting from atherosclerosis, inflammation of tubules, kidney ischemia, or NSAIDs
    acute renal failure
  243. inflammation of glomeruli caused by an autoimmune attack against glomerular capillary basemen membranes and leakge of protein into urine
  244. nephrons destroyed causing salt and water retenion and uremia
    renal insuffienciency
  245. condition with high plasma H+ and K+ levels
  246. inability to regulate ammonia or urea flow
  247. How to solve many urinary problems
    drinking water
  248. How much fluid does the average person need per day?
    • men- 3 liters (13 cups)
    • women- 2.2 liters (9 cups)
  249. procedure used to shatter simple stones in the kidney or upper urinary tract
    extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
  250. bacteria enters the bladder or kidneys
  251. cystitis is more common in ___ because the urethra is shorter.
  252. common name for cystitis
    bladder infection
  253. Symptoms of a urinary tract infection
    • frequent need to urinate
    • pain in abdomen
    • burning sensation during urination
    • cloudy, bad smelling urine
    • blood in urine
    • leaking urine
    • low back pain
    • fever
    • chills
    • nausea
    • poor appetite
  254. A UTI can be an infection of what two things?
    bladder or kidneys
  255. tube that can be inserted into a body cavity (such as the bladder), duct, or vessel
  256. process of inserting a catheter
  257. sudden contractions of the bladder produce sensation of urgency, more common in women
    overactive bladder
  258. inability to control urination or defecation
  259. synthetically removing, cleansing, and putting blood back through tubing of various passage sizes
  260. waste product of protein digestion
  261. inadequate rate when kidneys fail to filter that causes an increase in creatine
    glomerulus filtration rate (GFR)
  262. feuls filtration rate
    blood pressure
  263. bacteria in urine could cause what appearance?