intro to criminal justice

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intro to criminal justice
2012-11-28 21:46:43

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  1. ______________ is the evidentiary criterion necessary to sustain an arrest or the issuance of an arrest or search warrant. (Facts or circumstances that would lead a reasonable and Prudent person to believe that criminal activity is afoot); less than absolute certainty, but ggreater than mere suspicion or "hunch".
    Probable cause
  2. This federal agency deals with the illegal sale, importation and criminal misuse of firearms and explosives.
  3. The identification of criminal suspects by matching DNA samples taken from their person with specimens found at the crime scene.
    DNA profiling
  4. Most metropolitan law enforcement agencies employ more than 50 officers.
  5. In 1893 this agency was formed and created a civil service police force for removing policital influence and control.
  6. Vice squads target violent crime.
  7. Most promotions in policing have _______ requirements.
    Time in rank
  8. A department policy that emphasizes stopping crimes before they occur, rather than reacting to crimes that have already occurred. This is called what?
    Proactive policing
  9. ________ is the use of scientific techniques to investigate questions of interest to the justice system and solve crimes.
    Forensic science
  10. ________ is where police patrols take officers out of cars and puts them on a walking beat in order to strengthen ties with the community.
    Foot patrol
  11. The more serious the crime the more likely it is that detectives will solve it.
  12. One aggressive patrol program, known as the ___________, was directed at restricting the carrying of guns in high-risk places at high risk times.
    Kansas City Gun Experiment
  13. _______ is an aggressive law enforcement style that emphasizes attacking crimes head-on in advance rather than waiting for calls for service.
    Proactive policing
  14. These police officers are assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as prostitution, gambling, and pornography.
    Vice squad
  15. Police work primarily involves crime fighting.
  16. In order for detectives to investigate effectively they can rely on Martin Innes three-pronged approach. What are the three-prongs?
    Specific focus: interview witnesses, gather evidence, record events and collect facts at the immediate crime scene. General coverage:

    1.canvass the neighborhood and make observations.

    2. conduct interviews with friends, families and associates.

    3. contact coworkers or employers for information about victims and suspects.

    4. construct victim/suspect timelines to outline their where abouts prior to incident. Informative: use modern technology to collect records of cell phones, computer hard drives, diaries, notes, and documents.
  17. _________ is the branch of the police department that investigates charges of corruption or misconduct on the part of the police officers.
    Internal affairs
  18. __________ are programs and strategies designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more cooperative working environment between them.
    Community policing
  19. A program originated by the New York City police that used carefully collected and analyed crime data to shape policy and evaluate police effectiveness.
  20. The average police officer can expect to make between 10 and 15 arrests per month for serious crimes.
  21. The top administrator of the police department, who sets policy and has general control over department policies and practices.
    Police chief
  22. Police and detective investigations have improved dramatically due to advances in ___________.
    Forensic science
  23. A patrol strategy that involves concentrating police resources in areas where certain crimes are a significant problem.
    Directed patrol
  24. An undercover police operation in which police pose as criminals to trap law violators.
    Sting operation
  25. The detective bureau is considered the backbone of policing.
  26. In regards to the 1982 paper by George Keeling and James Q. Wilson which came to be known as the broken windows model. What three points were made?
    1. Neighborhood disorder creates fear.

    2. Neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals.

    3. Police need citizen cooperation.
  27. Most crimes are solved when the perpetrator is identified at the crime scene.
  28. For police officers to advance in rank, they must spend an appropriate amount of time in the preceding rank. What is this called?
    Time in rank
  29. College degrees may have little direct impact on promotion potentials for police officers.
  30. This federal agency enforces federal drug control laws.
  31. This was a call for assistance in medieval England.
    Hue and cry
  32. This person established in 1326 was created to help shire reeve in controlling the country.
    Justice of the peace
  33. There are fewer private police than public police.
  34. This federal agency is th arm of the U.S. Justice Department that investigates violations of federal law, seeks to protect America from terrorist attacks, gather crime statistics, runs a comprehensive crime laboratory and helps train local law enforcement officers.
  35. The _______ is the chief law enforcement office in a county.
  36. Groups of citizens who tracked down wanted criminals in the Old West.
  37. During the nineteenth century, the police were regarded as competent and professional.
  38. What U.S. Supreme Court case ruled on the use of deadly force to stop a fleeing felon?
    Tennessee vs. Garner
  39. List six warrantless searches:
    1. Search incident to a valid arrest

    2. Stop and frisk

    3. Automobile search

    4. Consent search

    5. Plain-view search

    6. Exigent circumstances
  40. What are four factors that relate to police shootings?
    1. Exposure to violence

    2. National crime rates

    3. Community threat levels

    4. Administrative factors
  41. In the landmark case, ___________ the Supreme Court held that police officers can perform a stop and frisk when they have reasonable suspicion to believe criminal activity is afoot.
    Terry vs. Ohio
  42. The ______________ provides that all evidence obtained by unreasonable searches and seizures is inadmissible in criminal trials.
    Exclusionary rule
  43. The _______________ is the principle that evidence may be used in a criminal trial, even though the search warrant used to obtain it is technically faulty, if the police acted in good faith and to the best of their ability when they sought to obtain it from a judge.
    Good Faith Exception
  44. What 1961 Supreme Court casr made the exclusionary rule applicable to state courts?
    Mapp vs. Ohio
  45. A ____________ is a court order authorizing and directing poice to search a designated place for evidence of a crime.
    Search warrant
  46. What are three procedural requirements that must be met in order to obtain a search warrant?
    1. The police officer must request the warrant from the court.

    2. The officer must submit an affidavit establishing the proper grounds for the warrant.

    3. The affidavit must state the place to be searched and the property to be seized.
  47. The U.S. Supreme Court case that granted counsel to indigent defendants in felony prosecutions?
    Gideon v. Wainwright
  48. The drug court movement began in New York?
  49. This person does not have the means to hire an attorney?
    Indigent defendant
  50. If the prosecutor decides to pursue a case, the charges may later be dropped if conditions are not favorable for a conviction in a process called?
    Nolle prosequi
  51. The process of deciding a case by a group of persons selected and sworn in to serve as jurors at a criminal trial?
    Jury Trial
  52. This is an order for a superior court requesting that the record of an inferior court be brought forward for review or inspection?
    writ of certiorari
  53. Appellate courts try cases?
  54. The federal court system is organized around a _________hierarchy of court jurisdiction.
  55. In this U.S. Supreme Court case prosecutors are allowed to carry out threats of increased charges when the defendant refuses to plead guilty to original charge?
    Bordenkircher v. Hayes
  56. The Sixth Amendment assures the right to counsel?
  57. What Amendment to the Constitution allows for provision of counsel at trial?
    Sixth Amendment
  58. This court reconsiders  a case that has already been tried?
    Appellate Court
  59. Courts of general jurisdiction are sometimes called municipal courts?
  60. These are courts that have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and conduct preliminary investigations of felony charges?
    State courts of limited jurisdiction
  61. State_______process about 20 million cases of criminal conduct each year.
    court system
  62. The U.S. Supreme Court is the only court established by constitutional mandate?
  63. Interviewing witnesses in a criminal case is one of the duties of the prosecutor?
  64. The ________is used to select judges in more than 30 states.
    Missouri Plan
  65. The Supreme Court issues a ____________indicating that it has decided to hear a case.
    writ of certiorari
  66. List two specialized courts.
    • Drug courts
    • Mental Health courts
  67. What are the Courts of the Georgia State Court System?
    • 1. Municipal
    • 2. Magistrate
    • 3. Probate
    • 4. Juvenile
    • 5. State
    • 6. Superior
    • 7. Supreme
    • 8. Court of Appeals
  68. Bail can be used to punish an accused and can be denied or revoked at the indulgence of the court?
  69. At the_________, defendants are informed of the formal charges and asked to enter a plea.
  70. An ___________is a charging document drawn up by a prosecutor and submitted to a grand jury.
  71. The Eighth Amendment prohibits__________.
    excessive bail
  72. A__________is the dismissal of a prospective juror for unexplained, discretionary reasons.
    peremptory challenge
  73. More than half of all violent criminals are released before trial?
  74. A nolo contendere (no contest) plea is essentially the same as a guilty plea?
  75. The grand jury has the power to act as an independent investigative body?
  76. A________is issued if the grand jury fails to find that probable cause to prosecute exists.
    No Bill
  77. Diversion programs allow a defendant to enter treatment instead of trial?
  78. A________is the name given to the report of a grand jury investigation.
  79. The__________Amendent to the Constitution guarantees the right to a trial by jury.
  80. The state can never order a defendent to take medication when s/he is ruled incompetent to stand trial?
  81. In about half the states, a_____________ is used as an alternative to grand jury.
    prosecutor's information
  82. There is no set time that defines a speedy trial?
  83. Most states impose qualifications, such as a high school education, on those called for jury service?
  84. Voir dire is when potential jurors are questioned by the prosecutioon and the defense to determine if they can sit on the jury?
  85. If a verdict cannot be reached, the trial may result in a_______.
    hung jury
  86. In a criminal case, a preponderance of the evidence is sometimes enough to convict?
  87. The concept of the grand jury was brought to the American colonies by early settlers and later incorporated into the ______Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
  88. What are the steps in the court process? (15)
    • 1. initial contact
    • 2. investigation
    • 3. arrest
    • 4. custody
    • 5. charging
    • 6. preliminary hearing / grand jury
    • 7. arraignment
    • 8. bail / detention
    • 9. plea bargaining
    • 10. trial / adjudication
    • 11. sentencing / disposition
    • 12. appeal / postconviction remedies
    • 13. correctional treatment
    • 14. release
    • 15. post release
  89. What type of sentence did an offender receive if convicted of two or more crimes and the prison sentence is completed after the longest simple term has been served?
    concurrent sentence
  90. "Let the sentence fit the criminal" best describes the basic philosophy of?
    just desert
  91. In the case of Blakely v. Washington, the Court found that Washington state's sentencing guidelines were in violation of the _______Amendment.
  92. Historically, those that violated the law were considered morally corrupt?
  93. ____________relies on a fixed term of incarceration set in law by the legislature.
    determinate sentencing
  94. The beginning of the Enlightment Era marked the end of transporting criminals to America?
  95. The determinate sentence is still the most widely used type of sentence in the United States?
  96. The________goal of punishment means that means that an offender must pay back the victim for their loss.
  97. The use of____________factors such as offender age is a direct violation of the constitution.
  98. General deterrence argues that crime rates should fall as the likelihood of getting punished rises?
  99. Reducing recidivism is the primary goal of a specific deterrence?
  100. A sentence of three to twenty years for a crime of burglary is an example of an__________sentence.
  101. A sentencing target of eight to twenty-five years in prison is an example of a determinate sentence?
  102. The death penalty is used in all states and by the federal government?
  103. Sentencing__________are used to control and structure the sentencing process and reduce bias.
  104. Death penalty researchers do not all agree that the theat of capitol punishment serves as an effective deterrent to murder?
  105. Three-strikes laws are an example of a_________sentence.
  106. A_________describes the loss suffered by the victim of a crime.
    victim impact statement
  107. Supporters of the death penalty argue that capital punishment conforms to the requirement that the punishment be_________to the crime.
  108. Opponents of the death penalty argue that the____________of the death penalty may produce more violence.
    brutalization effect
  109. A number of states in the U.S. have placed a moratorium on executions until the issue of potential for error is adequately addressed?
  110. Over 100 countries actively utilize the death penalty?
  111. What term was adopted in 12th century to refer to a breach of faith with one's feudal lord?
  112. Poor laws were developed in England at the end of the___________century.
  113. To qualify for federal funds under truth-in-sentencing laws, states must require persons convicted of a violent felony crime to serve not less than_______percent of the prison sentence.
  114. Using mandatory life sentences so criminals cannot hurt other citizens is the core goal of what?
    three-strikes law
  115. Which punishment philosophy holds that criminal sentences should be proportional to the seriousness of the criminal act?
    just desert
  116. ______________may be defined as the system of law enforcement, adjudication, correction that is directly involved in the apprehension, prosecution, and control of those charged with criminal offenses.
    The contemporary criminal justice system
  117. The________is the decision-making point from the initial investigation or arrest by police to the eventual release of the offender and his or her reentry into society.
    criminal justice process
  118. In 1931 President herbert Hoover appointed the National Commission of Law Observance and Enforcement, which is commonly known today as the_________.
    Wickersham Commission
  119. _________is the study of the etiology, extent and nature of crime in society.
  120. Crime and violence rates are out of control and getting worse every day.
  121. _________is a survey designed to measure past and current criminal activities that relies on confidentiality.
    Self report
  122. ___________is a psychological condition marked by mood swings between periods of wild elation and deep depression.
    Bipolar disorder
  123. This theory states that a person's position in the social structure controls his or her behavior.
    Social structure theory
  124. Research shows that individuals who have been prior victims have a significantly higher chance of repeat victimization.
  125. This theory states that an individual's behavior is shaped by interactions with key social institutions such as family, school and peer groups.
    Social process theory
  126. A________is a violation of social rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by the people holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority, social stigma, and loss of status.
  127. ___________is a delinquent offender who is arrested five or more times before he or she is 18 and who stands a good chance of becoming an adult criminal.
    Chronic offender
  128. _________Americans are victimized by violent crime at a higher rate than other groups.
  129. This theory states behavior patterns are molded and learned in interactions with others.
    social learning theory
  130. A body of specific rules that declare what conduct is criminal and prescribe the punishment to be imposed for such conduct.
    Substantive law
  131. All U.S. citizens accused of a crime have a right to be released on bail before trial...
  132. What are the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution called?
    Bill of Rights
  133. Guilty mind. The mental element of a crime or the intent to commit a criminal act.
    Mens Rea
  134. What amendment to the Constitution deals with excessive bail?
    Eighth amendment
  135. Helping people take their own lives.
  136. A term that refers to acts that society considers inherently evil, such as murder and rape and that violate the basic principles of Judeo-Christian morality.
    Mala in se
  137. Under the Fourth Amendment, in order to search a person, the police must first obtain a search warrant.
  138. The criminal law is constantly evolving and changing.
  139. All law that is not criminal, include the laws of torts and contracts, property, maritime and commercial law.
    Civil law
  140. What amendment to the Constitution deals with double jeopardy?
    Fifth Amendment
  141. A criminal defense that maintains the police originated the criminal idea or initiated the criminal action.
  142. The___________states that evidence seized in violation of the Fourth Amendment cannot be used in a court of law.
    Exclusionary rule
  143. Latin for "law as retaliation".
    Lex talionis
  144. What amendment to the Constitution grants the right to cross examine witnesses?
    Sixth Amendment
  145. To stand by decided cases. The legal principle by which the decision or holding in an earlier case becomes the standard by which subsequent similar cases are judged.
    Stare Decisis
  146. About______percent of all violent crimes are committed by strangers.
  147. This person believed that human behavior was motivated by people's desire to achieve pleasure and pain.
    Jeremy Bentham
  148. ___________is the ability of neighborhood residents to act cooperatively to maintain social control within communities.
    Racial threat hypothesis
  149. A poor economy and high unemployment cause crime rates to increase.
  150. What is the FBI's yearly publication of where, when and how much serious crime occurrred in the prior year?
  151. What is the ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the U.S. Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violation?
  152. This theory states that people who had a close, caring bonds with a caregiver while growing up are more likely to develop prosocial interpersonal relationships in adulthood.
    Attachment theory
  153. This theory holds that a crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally.
    Straw theory
  154. Most crimes do not get reported to the police.
  155. This theory states that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict, and those who maintain social power use it to further their own interests.
    Conflict theory
  156. List all Part 1 crimes.
    1. Robbery

    2. Aggravated Assault

    3. Forcible Rape

    4. Burglary

    5. Larceny & Theft

    6. Arson

    7. Criminal Homicide
  157. __________is the passing of cultural values from one generation to the next.
    Cultural transmission
  158. The content of the criminal law is often shaped by moral crusaders and not by the will of the majority.
  159. In regards to the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, what was it primarily aimed at?
    Criminal justice system
  160. What are the three major components of the criminal justice system?
    • 1. Law Enforcement Agencies
    • 2. Court Agencies

    3. Correctional Agencies
  161. ___________is the policy of removing as many offenders as possible from secure confinement and treating them in the community.
  162. _________is the removal of all criminal penalties from a previously outlawed act.
  163. ___________is the reducing of a penalty for a criminal act but not legalizing it.
  164. _______is a type of jury responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence and issuing indictments.
    Grand Jury
  165. Drug abuse, gambling and prostitution are examples of a.
    Victimless crimes