psych chapter 14

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  1. Psychotherapy
    the treatment of emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage understanding of problems and modify troubling feelings, behaviors, or relationships
  2. Biomedical Therapies
    the use of medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
  3. Psychotropic Medications
    drugs that are used to treat psychological or mental disorders
  4. Psychoanalysis
    a type of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts
  5. Repressed
    pushed out of conscious awareness
  6. Insight
    the sudden realization of how a problem can be solve
  7. Free association
    a technique used in psychoanalysis in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind, as a way of revealing unconscious thoughts and emotions
  8. Resistance
    in psychoanalysis, the patient's unconscious attempts to block the revelation of repressed memories and conflicts
  9. Dream Interpretation
    a technique used in psychoanalysis in which the content of the dreams is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings, and motivations
  10. Interpretation
    a technique used in psychoanalysis in which the psychoanalyst offers a carefully timed explanation of the patient's dreams, free associations, or behaviors to facilitate the recognition of unconscious conflicts or motivations
  11. Transference
    in psychoanalysis, the process by which emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient's life, such as a parent, are unconsciously transferred to the psychoanalyst
  12. Short-term Dynamic Therapies
    type of psychotherapy that is based on psychoanalytic theory but differs in that it is typically time-limited, has specific goals, and involves an active, rather than neutral, role for the therapist
  13. Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
    a brief, psychodynamic psychotherapy that focuses on current relationships and is based on the assumption that symptoms are caused and maintained by interpersonal problems
  14. Unresolved Grief
    problems dealing with the death of significant others
  15. Role Disputes
    repetitive conflicts with significant others
  16. Role Transitions
    problems involving major life changes
  17. Interpersonal Deficits
    absent or faulty social skills that limit the ability to start or maintain healthy relationships with others
  18. Humanistic Perspective
    Emphasizes human potential, self-awareness, and freedom of choice
  19. Client (or person) Centered Therapy
    a type of psychotherapy developed by humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers in which the therapist is nondirective and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session
  20. Genuineness
    the therapist honestly and openly shares thoughts and feelings with the client
  21. Unconditional Positive Regard
    the therapist accepts, values, and cares for the clients, regardless of problems or behavior
  22. Empathetic Understanding
    the therapist reflects the content and personal meanings of the feelings being experienced by the client
  23. Conditional Acceptance
    acceptance by significant others is based on conforming to their expectations
  24. Self-actualization
    the realization of a person's unique potentials and talent
  25. Motivational Interviewing (MI)
    More directive than traditional client centered therapy, it is designed to help clients overcome mixed feelings or reluctance to commit to change
  26. Behavior therapy (behavior modification)
    a type of psychotherapy that focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques
  27. Counterconditioning
    a behavior therapy technique based on classical conditioning that involves modifying behavior by conditioning a new response that is incompatible with a previously learned response
  28. Observational Learning
    social imitation, in the context of Mary Cover Jones' experiment
  29. Systematic Desensitization
    a type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on the principle of counterconditioning
  30. Progressive Relaxation
    first step in systematic desensitization; successively relaxing one muscle group after another until a deep state of relaxation is achieved
  31. Anxiety Hierarchy
    second step in systematic desensitization, listing anxiety-provoking images associated with the feared situation in order from least to most anxiety producing
  32. Control Scene
    third step in systematic desensitization, developing an image of a relaxing scene
  33. Aversive Conditioning
    a relatively ineffective type of behavior therapy that involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurence of undesirable thoughts or behaviors
  34. Antabuse
    a medication used in aversive therapy for alcoholism, induces extreme nausea in a person if they drink alcohol while on this drug
  35. Shaping
    involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior
  36. Reinforcement (positive & negative)
    used to increase the incidence of desired behaviors
  37. Extinction
    the absence of reinforcement, used to reduce the occurrence of undesired behaviors
  38. Baseline Rate
    how often each problem occurred before treatment began
  39. Token Economy
    a form of behavior therapy in which the therapeutic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with tokens or points that may eventually be exchanged for tangible rewards
  40. Contingency Management
    a group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to illogical patterns of thinking; treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns
  41. Cognitive Therapies
    a group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to illogical patterns of thinking; treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns
  42. Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
    a type of cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that focuses on changing the client's irrational beliefs
  43. ABC model
    • An Activating event occurs (A)
    • The person's Beliefs (B)
    • about the event cause emotional Consequences (C)
  44. Cognitive Therapy (CT)
    therapy developed by Aaron T Beck that focuses on changing the client's unrealistic and maladaptive beliefs
  45. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
    therapy that integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and that is based on the assumption that thoughts, moods, and behaviors are interrelated
  46. Group Therapy
    a form of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients
  47. Self-help Groups and Support Groups
    similary to group therapy, conducted by nonprofessionals
  48. Family Therapy
    a form of psychotherapy that is based on the assumptions that the family is a system and that treats the family as a unit
  49. Couple Therapy
    therapy is conducted with any couple in a committed relationship
  50. Behavioral Couple Therapy
    based on the assumption that couples are satisfied when they experience more reinforcement than punishment in the relationship
  51. Spontaneous Remission
    some people eventually improve just with the passage of time
  52. Meta-analysis
    to combine and interprest the results of large numbers of sudy, pooling the results of several studies into a single analysis, creating one large study that can reveal overall trends in the data
  53. Empirically Supported Treatments
    psychotherapy approaches based on known psychological principles that have been subjected to controlled scientific trials and have demonstrated their effectiveness in helping people with psychological problems
  54. Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing Therapy (EMDR)
    therapy technique in which the client holds a vivid mental image of a troubling event or situation while rapidly moving his or her eyes back and forth in response to the therapists waving finger or while the therapist administers some other form of bilateral stimulation, such as sounding tones in alternate earsars
  55. Exposure Therapy
    behavioral therapy for phobias, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or related anxiety disorders in which the person is repeatedly exposed to the disturbing object or situation under controlled conditions
  56. Eclecticism
    the pragmatic and integrated use of techniques from different psychotherapies
  57. Integrative Psychotherapy
    also uses multiple approaches to therapy, but tends to blend them together rather than choosing different approaches for different clients
  58. psychotropic medications
    drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate psychological symptoms, and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders
  59. antipsychotic medications
    prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in the treatement of schizophrenia; also called neuroleptics
  60. atypical antipsychotic medications
    newer antipsychotic medications that, in contrast to the early antipsychotic drugs, block dopamine receptors in brain regions associated with psychotic symptoms rather than more globally throughout the brain, resulting in fewer side effects
  61. antianxiety medications
    prescription drugs that are used to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety
  62. lithium
    a naturally occurring substance that is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder
  63. antidepressant medications
    prescription drugs that are used to reduce the symptoms associated with depression
  64. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)
    class of antidepressant medications that increase the availability of serotonin in the brain and cause fewer side effects than earlier antidepressants; they include Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft
  65. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    a biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatement of depression that involves electrically inducing a brief brian seizure; also called electroshock therapy
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psych chapter 14

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