3L- FALL ADVANCED TORTS: Nuisance, Fraud, MP

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3L- FALL ADVANCED TORTS: Nuisance, Fraud, MP
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2012-11-28 22:10:34
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3L FALL ADVANCED TORTS Nuisance Fraud MP
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3L- FALL ADVANCED TORTS: Nuisance, Fraud, MP
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  1. Nusiance

    Define both types and what are the elements 
     2 types of nuisances

    • A.     Public nuisance – substantially
    • and unreasonably interferes/endangers the health, safety, and public welfare of the public at large/ community

    •                                               
    • i.     Can also be claims that disrupt the moral and
    • religious community as well

    •                                              
    • ii.     Types of claims

    a.    Brought by the government

    • b.    A private citizen can bring a claim
    • for public nuisance only if he can show he suffered special damages that are particular/different/unique in kind (not degree) from others in general public.

    1.     Special damages= unique damages

    2.    Harm must be distinct in kind from that suffered by the general public

    •                                                                                                     
    • i.     Some damage or injury special and peculiar to
    • P

    •                                                                                                   
    • ii.     The wrong complained of cannot be a common or
    • public right in which the P shares with all members of the community

    •                                                                                                  
    • iii.     Applies no matter how extensive or numerous
    • may be the instances of discomfort/injury to persons or property

    •                                                                                                  
    • iv.     No COA (even for nominal damages) if no
    • physical interference with the personal or propriety rights of another.

    • 3.    2 step process                                                                                               
    • i.     Show existence of public nuisance                                                                                             
    • ii.     Show particular damage to individual

    •                                            
    • iii.     Examples of public nuisances declared by
    • statute:

    a.    Building a house/establishment for prostitution

    b.     Illegal possession/sale of narcotics

    c.      Illegal possession of alcohol (moonshine)

    d.    Snake handling that exposes people to conduct

    •                                            
    • iv.     If regulations are followed, there may be
    • statutory protections

    •                                              
    • v.     Public nuisance often also have criminal
    • charges

    • B.    Private nuisance –A substantial and unreasonable interference with use and enjoyment of individual’s property
    •                      
    • i.     Substantial—an invasion is actionable if it
    • involves more than a slight inconvenience or annoyance

    •                                              
    • ii.     Unreasonable—injury must outweigh the utility
    • of D’s conduct

    a.    Factors court will consider:

    • 1.    Conduct of the D
    •  
    • 2.     Character of the invasion

    3.     Neighborhood and land value

    •     
    • 4.    Social utility of the D’s conduct – social benefits

    5.    Existence of alternatives

    6.    Statutory protections/regulations

    •                                                                                                     
    • i.     Legislative authority defense—conduct that is
    • lawful pursuant to a statute; zoning ordinance; legislative license; etc. may
    • protect D

    •                                            
    • iii.     Can be intentional, negligent,
    • ultra-hazardous, or reckless

    a.    Owners/possessors of land/easement can bring an action

    • b.    A person who intentionally creates or maintains a private nuisance is liable for resulting injury to others regardless of degree of care or skill exercised by
    • him to avoid such injury


    •                                            
    • iv.     Categories of nuisances

    a.    Interference with physical conditions

    b.    Intangible interferences

    1.    Smoke, dust, excessive light, smell

    C.    Coming to the nuisance

    •                                               
    • i.     If the nuisance exists beforehand… there can
    • still me a suit; not precluded from bring a claim but will be a factor in determining reasonable

    •                                              
    • ii.     NC—Commercial agricultural or forestry
    • operations are protected if operating for at least 1 year

    D.   Distinctions of private v public

    •                                               
    • i.     Effect of public at large v. individual

     

     

     

     
  2. Fraud

    Actual 
    2 types of fraud

    A.    Actual = intentional misrepresentation

    •                                               
    • i.     P reasonably relies on D’s misrepresentation of a material fact, which was reasonably calculated and made with intent to deceive, and which did deceive the P, causing damages to P
    •                             
    • ii.     Elements:

    a.    P reasonably relies on a D’s

    b.    Misrepresentation of a material fact

    • 1.    False representation or concealment
    •                                                                                   
    • ii.     Element satisfied if D actively conceals
    • material fact

    c.     Reasonably calculated to deceive

    1.     D knew statement was false à if this is not satisfied then constructive fraud may be

    d.     Made with intent to deceive

    e.    Which does in fact deceive

    f.     Resulting in damage to the injured party

    •                                            
    • iii.     Reasonableness of P’s reliance is a question
    • for the jury
  3. Fraud 

    Actual 
    2 types of fraud

    A.    Actual = intentional misrepresentation

    •                                               
    • i.     P reasonably relies on D’s misrepresentation of a material fact, which was reasonably calculated and made with intent to deceive, and which did deceive the P, causing damages to P
    •                             
    • ii.     Elements:

    a.    P reasonably relies on a D’s

    b.    Misrepresentation of a material fact

    • 1.    False representation or concealment
    •                                                                                   
    • ii.     Element satisfied if D actively conceals
    • material fact

    c.     Reasonably calculated to deceive

    1.     D knew statement was false à if this is not satisfied then constructive fraud may be

    d.     Made with intent to deceive

    e.    Which does in fact deceive

    f.     Resulting in damage to the injured party

    •                                            
    • iii.     Reasonableness of P’s reliance is a question
    • for the jury
  4. Fraud 

    Constructive 
    Constructive = negligent misrepresentation

    •                                               
    • i.     A fiduciary and confidential relationship exist between P and D and P reasonably relies on D’s misrepresentation of a material fact, which caused damage to P

    •                                              
    • ii.     Elements:

    a.     Fiduciary and confidential relationship exist between P and D and

    1.    IE: business partner, brother, long-time friend, accountant, lawyer

    2.    A party justifiably relies To his detriment On information prepared without reasonable care  By one who owed the relying party a duty of care  P reasonably relies on a D’s 

    c.     Misrepresentation of a material fact

    d.    Resulting in damage to the P

    •                                            
    • iii.     No privity requirement—liability extended: Liability extends not only to those in privity or near privity, but
    • also to those persons, or classes of persons, whom he knows his client intends
    • will so rely

    a.    Can still have a COA if no direct contact (IE: Pyramid Scheme—Sage can be used by all involved)

    •                                            
    • iv.     When the D obtained a possible benefit
    • through alleged abuse of the confidential or fiduciary relationship, the aggrieved party is entitled to a rebuttable
    • presumption that constructive fraud occurred.

    a.    D may rebut by showing confidence response in him was not abused

    • 1.    
    • IE:
    • P obtained second opinions before acting
  5. Actual v. Constructive Fraud 
       Actual v. constructive

    •                                               
    • i.     Constructive is based on a relationship
    • rather than a specific misrepresentation.

    •                                              
    • ii.     Intent to deceive is not an element of
    • constructive fraud whereas it is for actual

    •                                            
    • iii.     Constructive has rebuttable presumption  
  6. Malicious Prosecution 
     P must show that the [current] D initiated the earlier proceeding, maliciously and without probable cause, and that the earlier proceeding terminated in [current] P’s favor

        *if civil must also prove special damages; criminal proceeding then no need

    B.    Elements:

    •                                               
    • i.     [current] Defendant initiated earlier proceeding

    • a.    
    • Defendant
    • in the current/MP case was the P in the earlier/former lawsuit that he/she
    • instituted

    • b.    
    • Civil or
    • criminal

    • c.     
    • Initiation
    • may be a warrant, arrest, indictment, etc.

    •                                              
    • ii.     Maliciously and

    • a.    
    • IE:
    • improper purpose; reason other than bring a person to justice

    •                                            
    • iii.     Without probable cause

    • a.    
    • Court
    • infer that a lack of probable = malice

    • b.    
    • This is
    • where most will loss --- reasonable articulable suspicion

    •                                            
    • iv.     The earlier proceeding was terminated in the [current] Plaintiff’s favor

    • a.    
    • Thus,
    • the P in the MP succeeded when he was the D in the earlier case

    • b.    
    • The
    • plaintiff need not allege that the termination of the prior proceeding in his
    • favor was on the merits

    • 1.    
    • IE:
    • acquitted, case was dismissed, charges were dropped, etc.

    •                                                                                                     
    • i.     Remember that indictment by a grand jury is
    • prima facie evidence of probable cause.

    • c.     
    • Remember…
    • there may be probable cause even if the case is dismissed!!!!!

    • d.    
    • If any
    • one COA is found for the current D/then P… then element is NOT satisfied and
    • current D cannot succeed

    • 1.    
    • IE:
    • property damage v. defamation. 
    • Defamation thrown out but current D/then P won the property damage…so
    • current P/then D can not sue.

    •                                              
    • v.     Plaintiff
    • must allege and prove special damages from earlier proceeding if CIVIL proceeding


    • a.    
    • No need
    • to prove if criminal proceeding

    • b.    
    • Examples
    • of special damages

    • 1.    
    • Substantial
    • interference w/ P’s person or property

    • 2.    
    • Causing
    • execution or an injunction to be issued

    • 3.    
    • A
    • receiver to be appointed

    • 4.    
    • P’s
    • property to be attached or causing P to be wrongfully committed to a mental
    • institution

    • 5.    
    • Brought
    • before an administrative board losing license to sell real estate. 

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