pathophysiology test 4

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tab
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185980
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pathophysiology test 4
Updated:
2012-11-28 23:10:41
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parkinsons
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parkinsons
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  1. most common cause of PD
    idopathic
  2. 3 clinical classifications of PD
    • idopathic
    • symptomatic
    • as part of a neuronal degenerate disorder
  3. main component of neuronal dengerate disorder
    diffuse lewy body disease
  4. 6 causes of symptomatic PD
    • post-encephalitis
    • drug induced
    • toxic
    • traumatic
    • atherosclerotic
    • normal pressure hydrocephalus
  5. 2 main anatomical areas involved in PD
    • substantia nigra pars compacta
    • cerebral cortex
  6. DA neurons start in SN and synapse onto neurons in what 2 places
    • caudate
    • putamen
  7. what % of DA containing neurons of the SN are gone before symptoms appear
    60-80%
  8. what makes the brown pigment in the SN
    neuromelanin
  9. how is neuromelanin produced
    catabolism of dopamine
  10. major component of lewy bodies
    alpha synuclein
  11. what are you staining antibodies against in lewy bodies
    ubiquitin
  12. what does eosinic mean in lewy bodies
    stains with eosin, so they will look pink
  13. early or late onset
    dementia more prevalent
    severity of dopamine loss
    infiltration of lewy bodies
    • late
    • early
    • late
  14. what stimulates the dopaminergic neuron in the substantia nigra
    GABA
  15. 3 other changes in PD
    • CSF - decreased alpha-synuclein
    • hyposmia - decreased olfaction
    • sleep problems - another early sign
  16. are most cases of PD genetic or sporadic
    sproadic - 4/5 disease-causing loci mutations in 3 genes and several allelic associations
  17. 6 demographics of PD
    • males=females
    • 60,000 new cases/year
    • 1.5M americans have
    • usually develops after the age of 65
    • 1% of population over 50
    • 2nd most common neurodegenerative disease after alzheimers
  18. how is PD mainly diagnosed
    signs and symptoms
  19. what drugs can cause 2ndary parkinsonism
    • neuroleptics (antipsychotics)
    • metoclopramide
  20. step 1 of Dx parkinsonian syndrome
    • bradykinesia
    • at least one
    •     muscular rigidity
    •     4-6 Hz rest tremor
    •     postural instability
  21. step 3. 10 supportive prospective positive criteria which there needs to be 3 or more for diagnosis of definite PD
    • unilateral onset
    • rest tremor present
    • progressive disorder
    • persistent asymmetry affecting the side onset most
    • excellent response to L-dopa
    • severe L-dopa induced chorea
    • L-dopa response for 5 yrs or more
    • clinical course of 10 yrs or more
    • hyposmia
    • visual hallucination
  22. 3 surgery treatments of PD
    • stem cells
    • anatomical surgeries
    • deep brain stimulation
  23. 3 complications associated with immobility in PD
    • pneumonia
    • urosepsis
    • venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolization

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