HROB Test 3
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The stock option plan allows senior-level managers to buy company stock in the future at a/ the _____ price.
This new approach rewards competencies of the employees such as those related to the international business context, social skills etc.
4.Pay for knowledge workers in teams.
A growing number of firms that have implemented a well-structured, formal recognition system have experienced a dramatic improvement in the _____ of their best employees.
The pay package of several CEOs of large companies are not reflected in their performance. To counter this, a growing number of corporate shareholders have proposed resolutions that tie a CEO's pay to a multiple of the _____ pay. Answer
In this system, besides sales volume, the commission is determined by customer satisfaction and sales team outcomes such as meeting revenue or profit goals. Answer 1.Commissions based beyond sales to customers. 2.Rewarding new goals.
3.Pay for knowledge workers in teams.
Commissions based beyond sales to customers.
This group incentive plan typically involves the company taking out a loan to buy a portion of its own stock in the open market. Answer
1.Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP).
2.The use of stock options.
3.The use of fixed pay increases.
4.Current profit sharing.
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP).
Organizational rewards in the form of money can take on all of the following forms EXCEPT: Answer
4.company sponsored training.
company sponsored training.
The rise and fall of Nortel (the large multinational Canada-headquartered telecommunications company) was used in the text as an example in critically analyzing Answer
This has been recognized as being central to knowledge management and competitive advantage in the new paradigm shift. Answer
Agency theory seeks to explain: Answer
1.how owners and managers may vary in their approach to risk taking.
2.how owners are more effective than managers in using pay and other forms of compensation to effectively run the organization.
3.differences in time horizons between managers and lower-level employees.
4.how owners and managers are similar while making decisions during a high stress situation.
how owners and managers may vary in their approach to risk taking.
The importance of _____ is now recognized as being a vital dimension of the organizational environment that influences human behavior at the workplace. Answer 1.plant and equipment
When may an organization find it difficult to hire and retain many of their personnel? Answer
1.When the organization seeks to internally train their employees.
2.When the organization does not have an effective hiring campaign in place.
3.When the base pay is not in line with the market rate. 4.When the job requirements include specifications to be able to deal with dynamism.
When the base pay is not in line with the market rate.
Which among the following is a potentially powerful, and importantly, much less expensive form of organizational reward systems? Answer
What is the basic idea behind the stock option plan in relation to the value of the company’s stock? Answer 1.The executives can be held accountable for the decrease in value of the stock.
2.The executives are guaranteed participation in the board meetings.
3.The executives will strive to increase organizational performance.
4.The company can hold on to the executives for as long as they are necessary.
The executives will strive to increase organizational performance.
As the HR manager of a firm, you have the job to hire a talented candidate for your company quickly. You would motivate the candidate to join the company quickly by offering: Answer
2.a signing bonus.
3.merit based pay.
4.the possibility of recognition.
a signing bonus.
These plans are designed to share with the group or team the net gains from productivity improvements. Answer 1.Gain-sharing.
2.Employee Stock Option Plans.
3.Spot bonus awards.
4.Group sales commissions.
Which of the following approach includes an employee-satisfaction measure to recognize a manager's people-management skills? Answer
2.Pay for knowledge workers in teams
3.Rewarding leadership effectiveness
Rewarding leadership effectiveness
Organizations use rewards to motivate employee performance and encourage their loyalty, but it is not effective in retention of these employees. Answer True False
All of the following are characteristics of a recognition system EXCEPT: Answer
1.it is most effective during an annual performance review.
2.it can be given in small or large quantities.
3.it is mostly controllable by the manager.
4.it can take many different forms.
it is most effective during an annual performance review
Agency theory is concerned with the diverse interests of the stakeholders, and the methods by which the enterprise’s _____ is used to align these interests and goals. Answer 1.objectives
Based on emperical research which aspect gets negatively affected if organizations reduce their pay? Answer 1.Productivity.
All these are forms of individual incentive plans EXCEPT: Answer 1.individual incentive pay plan. 2.use of bonuses. 3.use of stock options. 4.profit sharing.
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage associated with merit pay? Answer
1.The criteria for determining merit are often nebulous. 2.It is difficult to quantify merit pay criteria.
3.It can end up being "catch-up" pay.
4.It allows the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers.
It allows the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers.
When Steve Kerr, noted that "Nobody refuses it, nobody returns it, and people who have more than they could ever use do dreadful things to get more," what was he referring to? Answer
Which one of the following theories equates money as being only as important as the most basic requirements of employees? Answer
1.Classical management theory
2.Classical motivational theory
3.Maslow's hierarchy theory
Maslows hierarchy theory
Identify the kind of worker whose work output may be easily measured. Answer
Production line workers
Some of the formal recognition systems in place at the Hotel Sofitel Minneapolis include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
1.Sofitel Service Champions.
2.Proactive Personnel of the Week.
3.Department Appreciation Days.
4.Team Member of the Month.
Proactive Personnel of the Week.
According to agency thoery, the people who are in control of large organizations are usually _____ who are responsible for representing the interests of the owners. Answer
All of these are disadvantages of the group incentive plan EXCEPT: Answer
1.it de-emphasizes individual performance and rewards the non-productive as well.
2.the rewards may be realized decades later reducing the day-to-day performance motivation.
3.it focuses the group on specific performance targets. 4.None of the above
it focuses the group on specific performance targets.
Steps needed to effectively set up and manage a formal and informal recognition program include all of these, EXCEPT: Answer
1.Make recognition part of performance management process.
2.Conduct recognition ceremonies.
3.Recognize using small and large monetary awards. 4.Continuously review and change recognition program for effectiveness
5.Solicit recognition ideas from both employees and managers
Recognize using small and large monetary awards.
Which of the following is the practice of collapsing the traditional large number of salary levels into a small number of salary grades with broad pay ranges? Answer 1.Broad-banding
3.Commissions based beyond sales to customers 4.Rewarding leadership effectiveness
All of the following are disadvantages associated with merit pay EXCEPT: Answer
1.the criteria for determining merit are often nebulous.
2.it is difficult to quantify merit pay criteria.
3.it can end up being “catch-up” pay.
4.it allows the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers.
it allows the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers
The logic behind gain-sharing plans is that: Answer 1.reward systems such as pay for performance are practical only when performance can be easily and objectively measured.
2.those who are making lower salaries get larger percentage increases, whereas those earning higher salaries get a flat raise.
3.if everyone works to reduce cost and increase productivity, the organization will become more efficient and have more money to reward its personnel. 4.individuals who do superior work can be given increases greater than the rest of their colleagues.
if everyone works to reduce cost and increase productivity, theorganization will become more efficient and have more money to reward its personnel.
The case study featured in the video on team building was based on the company: Answer
4.Johnson & Johnson
Which classic theory states that persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals? Answer
3.Punctuated equilibrium model.
The following are all factors that can give rise to role ambiguity EXCEPT: Answer
2.incomplete orders given by a manager.
4.unclear job descriptions.
A comprehensive theory of group formation than mere propinquity comes from the classic theory of George Homans based on all of the following variables EXCEPT: Answer
The discussants in the panel discussion had differing views on the: Answer
1.Importance of virtual teams.
2.Need for bonding between team members.
3.Relevance of team building.
4.Creation of groups.
Need for bonding between team members
Members performing knowledge-based tasks in remote locations can become members of so-called _____. Answer 1.permanent teams
Identify the role of one who acts as a facilitator and bridge between units or groups which would not otherwise interact. Answer
To improve coordination among the cross-functional teams, organizations can carry out the following steps EXCEPT: Answer
1.choose the members carefully.
2.clearly establish the purpose of the teams.
3.ensure that specific members especially understand how the group functions.
4.conduct intensive team building up front so that everyone knows how to interact effectively.
ensure that specificmembers especially understand how the group functions.
Group members, in the video on a group members getting together to make its’ internal process more efficient, were employed in: Answer
2.Johnson & Johnson
The norming stage of group development is characterized by the following EXCEPT: Answer
All of the following are symptoms of groupthink EXCEPT: Answer
1.self-censorship of any deviation from the apparent group consensus.
2.dialogue to reduce vulnerability due to optimism and risk taking.
3.those who oppose the group are stereotyped as evil, weak, or stupid.
4.there is the illusion of unanimity.
dialogue to reducevulnerability due to optimism and risk taking.
A craft union would be an example for which type of group? Answer
Which word means simply that individuals affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity? Answer
Norms consist of a pattern of roles. Answer True False (roles are patterns of norms)
False (roles are patterns of norms)
To help overcome the potentially disastrous effects of group dysfunctions, _____ of minority and unpopular viewpoints should be encouraged and legitimatized. Answer
All of these are behaviors that are always key to adapting to unusual circumstances or events, EXCEPT: Answer 1.Information collection and transfer
Which among the following is NOT a characteristic of a coalition? Answer
1.Interacting group of individuals.
2.Dependent on the formal organization’s structure. 3.Mutual perception of membership.
4.Concerted member action, act as a group.
Dependent on the formalorganization’s structure
The team in the video on group members getting together to make its’ internal process more efficient, could be characterized as a: Answer
3.Cross functional team.
Cross functional team
From the classical psychology theories on groups, it can be deduced that both leadership and _____ can have an important impact on group performance in organizations. Answer 1.commitment 2.creativity 3.number of group members 4.group dynamic factors such as cohesion
group dynamic factors suchas cohesion
The team in the video on group members getting together to make its’ internal process more efficient, would pass through the adjourning stage of group development. Answer True False
All of the following are ways to use groups to enhance satisfaction and performance, EXCEPT: Answer
1.having groups charged with selection, training, and rewarding of members.
2.distributing resources on a group rather than an individual basis.
3.ensuring there is no intergroup rivalry.
4.organizing work around intact groups.
ensuring there is nointergroup rivalry.
In which among the following theories, does costs and benefits play an important role in group formation and continuance? Answer
4.Punctuated equilibrium model.
According to Richard Hackman, the conditions or the induction that a leader can imbibe to satisfactorily create conditions that promote group effectiveness include the following EXCEPT: Answer
1.letting the group members set themselves a compelling direction for the group’s work.
2.designing and enabling group structure.
3.ensuring that the group operates within a supportive context.
4.providing expert coaching.
letting the group membersset themselves a compelling direction for the group’s work
The role of a person who is empowered by the group to act on its behalf to get resources and make deals could be termed as: Answer
The phase when group members suddenly recognize that if they don’t change tactics, the group’s goal or mission will not be accomplished is characteristic of which one of the following group theories? Answer
3.Punctuated equilibrium theory.
Identify the third stage of group development. Answer 1.Adjourning.
A comprehensive definition would say that if a group exists in an organization, its members would be characterized by all of the following, Except: Answer 1.perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people.
2.are motivated to join.
3.reach agreements and have disagreements through various forms of interaction.
4.contribute in constant amounts to the group processes.
contribute in constantamounts to the group processes.
What among the following determinants of group effectiveness describes whether and how group performance is rewarded? Answer
The following types of views are suppressed in groups and teams suffering from groupthink EXCEPT: Answer 1.deviant.
The study of groups in the study of organizational behavior becomes especially valuable when the _____ of the groups are/ is analyzed. Answer
The following are all practical benefits that can be availed from an informal organization, EXCEPT: Answer 1.lightens the workload on management.
3.makes for a more effective total system.
4.enumerates gaps in a manager’s abilities.
enumerates gaps in amanager’s abilities
A prestigious social group that a person would like to join would be an example of this type of group. Answer 1.Reference group.
All of the following increase group cohesiveness, EXCEPT: Answer
1.Agreement on group goals.
3.Frequency of interaction.
This occurs when members reduce their effort and performance levels when acting as part of a group. Answer 1.Role conflict.
The characteristics of a primary group include all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
1.a feeling of comradeship.
3.common sense of values.
4.large number of people.
large number of people
The chances for making attributions to internal or personal causes for the behavior are higher when all of the following characteristics are present EXCEPT: Answer 1.low consensus.
All of these consist of the negative extrinsic motives EXCEPT: Answer
According to research by David McClelland, the derived specific characteristics of high achievers are summarized as being all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
1.high risk taking.
2.need for immediate feedback.
3.satisfaction with accomplishments.
4.preoccupation with the task.
high risk taking.
Which dimension of justice can raise issues of equality as opposed to equity? Answer
Among the following, who believed that once a given need is satisfied, it no longer serves to motivate? Answer 1.Herzberg.
When Mark is late for his economics presentation. Which of the following attribution is Mr. Rutherford, his economics lecturer, making if he assumes that Mark is not interested in the subject? Answer
Which of the following consists of an individual's cognitive evaluation regarding whether or not the amounts and allocations of rewards setting are fair? Answer 1.Interpersonal
The key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of and the relationship among all these EXCEPT: Answer
Glen meets with an accident while returning from work. Which of the following attribute is one of the bystanders making, if he blames the accident to a mechanical defect in Glen's car rather than Glen's negligence while driving? Answer
Having a degree from the right university can be categorized under: Answer
1.need for affiliation.
2.need for security.
3.need for power.
4.need for status.
need for status.
What ascribes a person's behavior to external factors such as equipment or social influence from others? Answer 1.Justification attributes
All of the attribution theories share the following assumptions EXCEPT: Answer
1.we seek to make sense of our world.
2.we seek to enhance our status through performance.
3.we often attribute people’s actions either to internal or external causes.
4.we do so in fairly logical ways.
we seek to enhance ourstatus through performance.
This according to Maslow, corresponds to the unlearned primary needs. Answer
1.Needs for self-actualization.
Attaining an incentive will: Answer
1.increase or initiate the drive.
2.create a physiological or psychological imbalance. 3.provide an energizing thrust towards a drive.
4.reduce or cut off the drive.
reduce or cut off thedrive.
According to the two-factor theory, all these can be considered as belonging to the category of motivators EXCEPT: Answer
Severance pay, health insurance, and seniority plans fall under which of the following category in the hierarchy of work motivation? Answer
Which one of the following would NOT be classified as a primary motive? Answer
3.Avoidance of pain.
4.Having a secure job.
Having a secure job
In a workplace, extrinsic motivators include all of these EXCEPT: Answer
Kelly suggests three dimensions that will affect the type of attributions that are made. To keep these dimensions straight, it can be remembered that _____ relates to other people, _____ relates to other tasks, and _____ relates to time. Answer
1.distinctiveness; consistency; consensus
2.consistency; distinctiveness; consensus
3.consensus; distinctiveness; consistency
4.consistency; consensus; distinctiveness
An incentive is defined as anything that will alleviate the needs and increase the drive. Answer True False
These people express the greatest desire to be socially accepted by others. Answer
1.People with high need for status.
2.People with high need for achievement.
3.People with high need for security.
4.People with high need for affiliation.
People with high need foraffiliation.
Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.
Answer True False
A person who does not like the idea that someone or something controls their lives is said to have which of the following attribution? Answer
3.External locus of control
4.Internal locus of control
Internal locus of control
An individual who believes in the statement, "Your fate was decided the day you were born," is said to have which of the following attribution? Answer
1.External locus of control
2.Internal locus of control
External locus of control
Avoiding tasks or decisions with a risk of failure and blame can be categorized under which one of the following needs? Answer
1.Need for achievement
2.Need for power
3.Need for status
4.Need for security
Need for security
Management often faces the problem of having employees who are not motivated despite being provided with high salaries, excellent fringe-benefit packages etc. Which theory offers an explanation for this type of behavior? Answer
1.Hierarchy of needs.
4.Alderfer’s ERG theory.
Which of the following can help explain why employees retaliate against both inequitable outcomes and inappropriate processes? Answer
Motivation is a hypothetical construct that is used to help explain behavior; it should not be equated with behavior. Answer True False
This by definition, occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his or her outcomes to inputs and the ratio of a relevant other’s outcomes to inputs are unequal. Answer
Identify the second need that correctly fits Maslow’s needs hierarchy principle. Answer
Which of the following is a characteristic of the need for achievement? Answer
1.Doing better than competitors
2.Defeating an opponent or enemy
3.Participating in pleasant social activities
4.Being protected against loss of income or economic disaster
Doing better thancompetitors
This theory is based mainly on the cognitive concept of expectancy. Answer
1.Human relations movement.
Equity theory is a _____ based motivation theory. Answer 1.emotion
An individual who believes in the statement, "I make my own fate", is said to have which of the following attribution? Answer
1.External locus of control
2.Internal locus of control
Internal locus of control
Which of the following theory is concerned with the relationship between personal social perception and interpersonal behavior? Answer
2.Hierarchy theory of needs
3.Equity theory of work motivation
In an organization, the interests of the top management is in conflict with that of the middle management. Which of the following theory is consistent with this situation? Answer
This model starts with the premise that motivation (effort or force) does not equal satisfaction or performance. Answer
1.Human relations theory/movement.
4.Porter – Lawler model.
Porter – Lawler model.
According to the two-factor theory, all these can be considered as belonging to the category of hygiene factors EXCEPT: Answer
2.company policy and administration.
3.interpersonal relations and supervisor.
4.supervision and technician.
According to which of the following theory, extrinsic motivators may actually undermine intrinsic motivation? Answer
1.Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
2.The Porter-Lawler Expectancy Theory
3.The Cognitive Evaluation Theory
4.The Equity Theory
The Cognitive EvaluationTheory
In explaining victories, athletes commonly credit themselves, but they are more likely to attribute losses to bad breaks, poor officiating, or the other team’s superior effort. This is an example of which one of the following attribution biases? Answer
1.Fundamental attribution error.
Using this, work behavior may be explained by whether employees perceive their outcomes as being controlled internally or externally. Answer
1.Locus of control.
Locus of control.
Primary motives must be unlearned, and it must be physiologically based. Answer True False
Which of these is NOT a category of the need for affiliation? Answer
1.Being liked by many people.
2.Influencing people to change their attitude or behavior. 3.Participating in pleasant social activities.
4.Working with people who are friendly and cooperative.
Influencing people tochange their attitude or behavior
The fact that there are a higher number of employees who are dissatisfied with the raise they get points out that the hygiene factors seem to be important in preventing dissatisfaction but do not lead to satisfaction. Answer True False
The strength of the attempt to restore equity, which in essence is motivation, is in direct proportion to the _____ that exists. Answer
According to Porter and Lawler, effort does not lead directly to performance but is moderated by all of the following EXCEPT: Answer
Fasting for a religious, social, or political cause is an example of _____ motive being preceded over by the other motives. Answer
In a workplace, which of the following can be categorized as an intrinsic motivator? Answer
In order to be included under the category of secondary motives, the motive must be learned. Answer True False
This type of an organization would reflect the contributions and interests of diverse cultural and social groups in its mission, operations, and products/ services.
This type of organization is characterized by an examination of all activities for the purpose of evaluating their impact on all employees’ opportunity to both participate in and contribute to their own and the firm’s growth and success.
A _______ organization acts on a commitment to eradicate social oppression in all forms within the organization.
According to the big health care firm Johnson & Johnson’s “credo,” what is its least responsibility?
Cultures around the world impact the organizational behavior of managers and employees in similar ways. Answer true false
There is no significant relationship between corporate social performance and bottom-line results. Answer Selected True false
The Teleological approach or Consequentialist view is also known as the:
According to Thomas Friedman, the first phase of globalization was characterized by companies globalizing. True false
Cultural diversity is a natural by-product for firms going international. True false
Most women have broken the "glass ceiling" to become CEO's, board of directors, and corporate officers of large organizations. True False
This type of organization is characterized by core cultural values and an ongoing commitment to eliminate social oppression throughout the organization.
While diversity may add value, it does not really contribute to the firm's competitive advantage. True
Identify the third stage of evolution of organizations leading up to the formation of a multicultural organization.
The Utilitarian view ignores or overlooks all of the following, EXCEPT:
An action is right if it produces good results for as many as possible
The foundation and point of departure for creating and effectively managing diversity is the development of a truly multicultural organization. True False
All of these are recommended for undertaking an analysis of ethics while making decisions, EXCEPT:
Always decide to use one of the three moral systems
Most tests traditionally used in selection and evaluation are not suited or valid for a diverse workforce. True False
It was found that work-to-family conflict was linked to all of the following EXCEPT:
_____ may be defined as, "engaging in economically sustainable business activities that go beyond legal requirements to protect the well-being of employees, communities, and the environment."
Corporate social responsibility
In which of the following types of organization, the strategy is more of meeting the letter of the laws, not the spirit. Answer
Which of the following disseminates ethical codes to organizations?
Cultures around the world impact the organizational behavior of managers and employees in similar ways. True
Which of the following is true of the way diversity issues are beginning to be treated by organizations today?
It is a reality to build on to make a stronger enterprise.
is valuable to shift perceptions.
All of the following are factors that contribute to the success of diversity training EXCEPT: Answer
mandatory participation of all employees.
Identify the ability to put oneself in another's place and see things from that person's point of view. Answer
___________ approach to ethical decision making stresses duties are obligations to act in a morally acceptable manner.
Code of Ethics is a published statement of moral expectations that lists corrective action for deviations. True False
According to the text, which of the following alternative work schedule arrangements have been widely used in Europe?
According to Thomas Friedman, the first phase of globalization was characterized by companies globalizing. True False
The Categorical imperative sets the standard for acceptability of moral rules as: An act is ethical if it can be applied universally to all and is reversible – do unto others as you would like them to do unto you. Persons should be considered as an end and not as means to an end. True False
According to the text, all of the following have had dramatic effect on the study and application of management and organizational behavior EXCEPT:
Distributive justice emphasizes the:
the fair distribution of benefits and burden.
Thomas Friedman study on globalization is titled "The world is flat". True False
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