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How much of the bodys blood do the kidneys filter a minute?
How much urine does a person void in a day?
What is the composition of Urine?
- ~90% water
- urea wastes
- Amino Acids
What should the odor of urine be?
mild, not fruity or like ammonia
What should the color of urine be and what causes this?
Urochrome should cause it to be pale yellow
- Urochrome is produced from the breakdown of RBCs
- Heme-->bilirubin, Urochrome, Urobilin
- BR-->bile in liver
What should the clarity of Urine be?
Should be clear, not cloudy
what should the pH of urine be?
4.5-8.0, most commonly at pH6, slightly alkaline
What is the specific gracity of urine and what is this compared to?
The specific gravity of urin is 1.01-1.025
this is compared to water at 1.00
higher solutes in the urine result in a higher specific gravity, such as with diabetes mellitus and pregnancy
What are the measurable checmical aspects of urine?
- specific gravity
- and leukocytes
What should be absent from a urine sample?
- blood (either hemolyzed or whole blood)
- glucose (or a small amount of 160mm/dl)
- bilirubin- from liver, gb, hemolysis
- ketones (fats used for energy/ATP)
- proteins (a trace is ok)-macromolecules-->Albumin
What can be measured in urine to test for diabetes mellitus?
- glucose levels
- specific gravity
What can be measured in urine to check for liver and gallbladder problems?
What can be measured to check for UTI or bladder infections?
What are kidney stones called?
What are the sediments found in urine?
- 1. Squamous epithelium (most common)
- 2. Cuboidal or transitional cells
- 3. WBC/RBC
- 4. Bacterial Yeast
- 5. Crystals (uric acid, cholesteral, calcium)
- 6. Mucus threads (women)
- 7. Casts- hyaline, granular, protien gell tubes
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