Chapter 11

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lunarii27
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186071
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Chapter 11
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2012-11-29 18:39:21
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Psychology Chapter 11 Development
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Psychology Development Vocabulary
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  1. The study of  continuity & change across the lifespan.
    Developmental psychology
  2. A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg.
    Zygote
  3. The 2-week period of prenatal development that begins at conception.
    Germinal stage
  4. The period of pernatal development that lasts from the second week until about the 8th week.
    Embryonic stage
  5. The period of prenatal development that lasts from 9th week till birth.
    Fetal stage
  6. The formation of a fatty sheath around the axon of a neuron.
    Myelination
  7. Agents that damage the process of development such as drugs & viruses.
    Teratogens
  8. A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.
    Fetal alcohol syndrome
  9. The stage of development that begins at birth & lasts between 18 & 24 months.
    Infancy
  10. The emergence of the ability to execute physical action.
    Motor development
  11. Specific patterns of motor responses that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation.
    Reflexes
  12. The "top-to-bottom" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet.
    Cephalocaudal rule
  13. The "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery.
    Proximodistal rule
  14. The emergence of the ability to think and understand.
    Cognitive development
  15. A stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which the infant aquires information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it.
    Sensorimotor stage
  16. Theories about or models of the way the world works.
    Schemas
  17. The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations.
    Assimilation
  18. The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information.
    Accomodation
  19. The idea that objects continue to exist even when they aren't visible.
    Object permanence
  20. The stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 months and lasts until adolescence.
    Childhood
  21. The stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years in which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world.
    Preoperational stage
  22. The stage of development that begins at about 6 years & ends at about 11 years, in which children learn how various actions or "operations" can affect or transorm "concrete" objects.
    Concrete operational stage
  23. The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object's appearance.
    Conservation
  24. The stage of development that begins around the age of 11 & lasts through adulthood, in which people can solve nonphysical problems.
    Formal operational stage
  25. The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.
    Egocentrism
  26. The idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations.
    Theory of mind
  27. The emotional bond that forms between newborns & their primary caregivers.
    Attachment
  28. A behavioral test developed by Mary Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style.
    Strange situation
  29. A set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver, and the relation between them.
    Internal working model of relationships
  30. Characteristc patterns of emotional reactivity.
    Temperaments
  31. A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequenses for the actor.
    Preconventional stage
  32. A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarly determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules.
    Conventional stage
  33. A stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.
    Postconventional stage
  34. The period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11 to 14 years of age) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (about 18 to 21 years of age).
    Adolescence
  35. The bodily changes associated with sexual maturity.
    Puberty
  36. Bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction.
    Primary sex characteristics
  37. Bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction.
    Secondary sex characteristics
  38. The stage of development that begins around 18 to 21 and ends at death.
    Adulthood

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