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Overall goal of survey and questionnaire design is...
to have reliable and valid measure of a contruct
The basics of questionaire contruction (4)
- -several items are generally better than one
- *many ways to assess the same thing
-vary the wording of items to elicit both high and low responses
-have a reason for each item
-consider the order of items
(questionaire contruction) Focus on usability
- -always include instructions
- *what do you want participant to do?
--have an organized layout
- --alwways label your scale points
- *ideally label them all
General principles of question contruction (5)
- -avoid ambiguity
- *to what extet do you approve or dissaprove how the president handles the problems
- **not specific
- -avoid double barreled questions
- *to what extent do you approve or disaprove of the President and his efforts to fix the economy?
-take care to ensure that all items measure what you think they are measuring
- -avoid leading questions
- *how positive do you feel....
-give respondents appropriate options and context for a question
(survey question formats) Closed-ended items
-specific rating scale or highly structured recall prompts
-most reliable for concrete behaviors
- -specific contructs can be assessed in several ways
- *direct attitude assessment
- **using a scale from 1-7
- - behavioral indicators
- **on average how much do you...this a week?
(types of closed ended items) Fixed alternatives (2)
-format can limit information that can be obtained
- example: do you believe....is?
- a) good for society
- b) bad for society
- *consider adding "other and specified"
- **limits the response from the individual, dont get in depth analysis of the participant
- it can be used to assess behavioral frequencies if more specific time intervals are added
-most common item type in psychological questionaire research
- -initially they were used as agree and disagree scales
- *they now got varied
- example: my mohther:
- 5: negative , 4: OK, 3 Positive
(types of closed ended item) Semantic differential
- -ratings of bipolar adjectives in realtion to a particular domain
- *usually on a 7-point scale
- example: rate your psych 242
- easy _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Hard
Advantages of closed ended-items
- -very specific and concrete
- *know what participant is responding to
-easy to quantify and use statisticalluy
- can be tested for reliability
Limitations of closed ended items
-often brief, simply worded, potentially superficial
- -issues or contructs are imposed on participants
- *may not exactly reflect their belifs
(types of survey formats) Open ended items
-general textual response: more sensitive to respondent
example: what is the most important social issue facing the country today?
-more difficult to interpret: analyze as qualitative data
2 ways open-ended items can be quantified
-frequency counts of citations or statements
- lnkages analysis of co-occuring statements