Psychology AP Review

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Psychology AP Review
2010-05-10 11:27:23
AP Psychology

Review for the AP Psychology Exam
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  1. SAME
    • Sensory = Afferent
    • Motor = Efferent
  2. Glial Cells
    Nourish and support Neurons
  3. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  4. Peripheral Nervous System
    Somatic, Autonomic, Sympathetic, Parasympathetic
  5. Serotonin
    Inhibitory- Emotional arousal, anxiety, sleep
  6. Endorphins
    Inhibitory- pain control and perception
  7. Dopamine
    Inhibitory- movement

    • Too little can cause Parkinson's
    • Too Much can cause Schizophrenia
  8. Acetylcholine
    Inhibitory and Excitatory- memory

    Relation with Alzheimers
  9. Norepinephrine
    Excitatory- mood, sleep, learning

    Associated with Depression
  10. Glutamate
    Excitatory- Strengthens synaptic connections
  11. GABA
    Inhibitory Neurotransmitter- sleep, anxiety

    Associated with Huntington's disease and Epilepsy
  12. Neuroanatomy
    Structure of the Brain
  13. Neurophysiology
    Function of the brain
  14. Medulla
    Part of Hindbrain- controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
  15. Pons
    Part of Hindbrain- controls movement, attention, sleep, alertness, etc.
  16. Cerebellum
    Part of Hindbrain- controls balance, muscle tone, coordination, helps with finely coordinated movements
  17. The Midbrain
    Contains the Reticular Formation (also part of hindbrain) - attention and alertness
  18. Substantia Nigra
    Part of the midbrain which controls the smooth initiation of movement (80-85% of Dopamine neurons are located here)
  19. Thalamus
    Part of the Forebrain (Diencephalon) - relay station for sensory information
  20. Hypothalamus
    Regulates body temperature, metabolism, hunger, thirst, sex drive, aggression, emotion, and more
  21. Suprachiasmatic Nuclei
    24 hour biological clock - controls the release of melatonin (pineal gland)
  22. Limbic System
    Controls emotions (amygdala), fear, memory (hippocampus)
  23. Cerebrum
    The two hemispheres of the brain
  24. Convolutions
    The brain's wrinkles (Gyri and Sulci)
  25. W. Penfield
    Mapped out the motor and somatosensory cortex
  26. R. Sperry
    Conducted research on split-brain patients
  27. Corpus Callosum
    Connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate (this is severed in split-brain patients)
  28. Basal Ganglia
    Located in front of the thalamus- controls postural movements and coordination
  29. Association Cortex
    Areas not involved with recieving information or initiating movement but with complex cognitive tasks such as associating words with images
  30. ESB
    Electrical stimulation of the brain (Penfield and Delgado)
  31. EEG

    Measures brain's electrical activity
  32. CAT
    Computerized Axial Tomography

    A series of x-rays that will produce a 3D image (can locate a tumor)

    Approx cost: $600
  33. PET
    Positron Emission Tomography

    Reads radioactively "tagged" glucose and shows brain activity - allows biochemical and functional studies (will show what a tumor is doing)

    Approx. Cost: $2500
  34. MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Detects magnetic fields that surround the atoms in the brain tissue by using radio waves to read fields (hydrocarbons). Shows greater anatomical detail.

    Approx. Cost: $1500
  35. fMRI
    Functional MRI

    Detects changes in blood flow to reflect neuron activity
  36. TMS
    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Exposure to magnetic fields disrupts brain activity
  37. Pituitary Gland
    "The Master Gland": Growth and sexual development
  38. Thyroid
    Controls Thyroxin
  39. Parathyroid
    Controls release of Calcium into the bloodstream
  40. Adrenal
    Releases adrenaline and cortisol (fight or flight), noradrenaline, and androgens
  41. Pancreas
    Insulin and Glucagon - Isles of Langerhans
  42. Ovaries
    Progesterone and Estrogen
  43. Testes
  44. Autonomic Nervous System
    Controls vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, and blood pressure
  45. Somatic Nervous System
    Controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles and allows us to experience body sensations
  46. Action Potential
    Electrical Impulses between neurons
  47. Neuron Firing Sequence
    Dendrite -> Cell Body -> Axon -> Axon Terminal
  48. Axon Terminals
    Produce and store Neurotransmitters
  49. Frontal Lobe
    Controls personality, problem solving, decision making, morality, and an individual's value system
  50. Parietal Lobe
    Controls body sensations
  51. Occipital Lobe
    Controls visual processing, and contains the primary visual cortex
  52. Temporal Lobe
    Controls auditory processing and language
  53. Motor Cortex
    Controls movement
  54. Somatosensory Cortex
    Controls intense body sensations, pain control, perception, substance abuse and addiction
  55. Brain Fissures
    • 1. Longitudinal
    • 2. Central
    • 3. Lateral
  56. Broca's Aphasia
    Labored or difficult language delivery
  57. Wernicke's Aphasia
    Nonsense speech/grammar problems