Bmsc Lipids

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  1. Functions of Lipids
    • energy storage (fat in animals, oils in plants)
    • structural component of membranes
    • active roles (signalling, enzymes cofactors+pigments)
  2. States of Lipids
    • -lipids have a low oxidation state, giving 9 kcal per gram
    • -low hydration state, provides compact, dehydrated energy form
  3. Structure of fatty acids
    • -hydrocarbon with carboxylic head
    • -usually even number of carbons
    • -can be saturated, mono-poly unsaturated (typically cis double bonds)
    • -conjugated double bonds rare (where it alternates between single and double bonds, we know they are generally 3 carbons apart in nature)
  4. Fatty Acid Nomenclature
    • -carboxyl group carbon is carbon number 1
    • -then put a : and total number of double bonds
    • -in BMSC use a delta and then superscript the location of all double bonds 18:3Δ9,12,15¬†would be alpha linolenic
  5. Interaction Forces
    • -only use hydrophobic and van der waals, with hydrophobic being stronger
    • -shorter chains or more double bonds are more likely to be liquid
  6. Triacylglycerols=Triglycerides from nutrition
    • -storage form of lipids in plants and animals
    • -simpler ones have same fatty acid at each position, more complex have different ones
    • -removing the ester linkage will make more hydrophobic molecule (removing fatty acid tails from glycerol backbone)
  7. Olestra
    • -eight fatty acids linked to a sucrose
    • -same taste and texture as fat but you dont absorb it, just shit it out
    • -not approved in canada
  8. waxes
    • -waxes are nonpolar esters of long chain fatty acids and long chain monohydroxilic alcohols
    • -very water insoluble
    • -high melting temp (60-100 celsius)
  9. Glycerophospholipids
    • -most abundant lipids in membranes
    • -like normal triglyceride, except where the third fatty acid normally goes it is a phosphate
    • -glycerol-3-phosphate+ 2 fatty acids=phosphatidate
    • -C1 fatty acid usually 16 or 18 carbons and saturated
    • -C2 fatty acid usually 18 or 20 carbons and unsaturated
  10. Galactolipids
    • -only found in plant cells
    • -one or two galactose molecules linked to C3 position of diacylglycerol
    • -plants are usually low in phosphate, thats why they use an equivalent hydrophilic group
  11. Sulfolipids
    • -same as galactolipids, but use sulfonate group instead for hydrophilic head
  12. Ether Linked Fatty Acids
    • -sometimes fatty acids can be linked by an ether linkage rather than esther linkage
    • -more chemically stable and resistant to digestion by lipases
  13. Sphingolipids
    • -single fatty acid joined by amide bond to form ceramie
    • -3 classes of sphingolipid, have different polar head group
    • 1-sphingomyelins
    • 2-cerebrosides=glycosphingolipid with single sugar unit
    • 3-ganglioside=glycoshpingolipid with more than 6 sugar units
    • pink part it sphingosine, yellow is fatty acid and blue X is where it varies
    • -different blood types are glycosphingolipids where the X varies
    • -sphingolipids are broken down in lysosomes by different lipases
  14. Extremophile Membranes
    • -some extremophile archeabacteria live in high temp of pH environments that would force a lipid bilayer apart
    • -in these extreme conditions the bilayer is actually just a single long chain hydrocarbon with glycerol head groups on both ends so it cant pull apart
  15. Steroids
    • -steroids=sterols
    • -structural membrane lipids
    • -precursors for many biologically active products
    • -four fused ring system with 3 6 carbon rings (A,B,C) and one 5 carbon ring (D)
    • -ring system is rigid and nearly planar
  16. Cholesterol
    • -mediate membrane fluidity (remember his concert stage setup metaphor)
    • -precursor for steroid hormones and bile salts
    • -cardiovascular disease linked
  17. Eicosanoids
    • -paracrine hormones (act on cells near point of production)
    • -derivatives of C20 PUFA (arachidonic acid)
    • 3 Classes
    • -Prostaglandins-constriction of blood vessels¬†
    • aspirin blocks production of prostaglandins
    • -Thromboxanes-blood clot formation, aspirin also blocks their creation
    • -Leukotrienes-smooth muscle contraction/bronchial constriction(asthma)
  18. Steroids as message carriers
    -hydrophobic steroid derivatives carried by carrier proteins through bloodstream and pass through plasma membrane and bind to receptors in nucleus, this alters patterns of gene expression and metabolism
  19. Vitamin D
    • -synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol in a series of reactions, one involves sunlight
    • -rickets is deficency disease (alters growth pattern)
  20. Vitamin A
    • -from liver, egg yolks, milk, or green/orange veggies
    • -3 forms=retinol(alcohol), aldehyde, and retinoic acid
    • -retinal aldehyde has role in vision
  21. Vitamin E
    • -reducing reagent that scavenges oxygen free radicals (gets rid of free radicals) therfore considered antioxidant
    • -deficiency causes scaly skin, weakness and sterility
  22. Vitamin K
    • -used in blood coagulation proteins
    • -vitamin K analogs (look alikes kinda) are given to people who suffer excess blood clotting, they act as competitive inhibitor to vitamin K, and are known as blood thinners (warfarin)

Card Set Information

Bmsc Lipids
2012-11-30 17:13:38
bmsc chapter 10 lipids

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