Micro test3 intro to mycology

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Micro test3 intro to mycology
2012-11-29 17:11:49
Micro test3 intro mycology

Micro test3 intro to mycology
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  1. What are the characteristics for cutaneous vs superficial mycoses?
    • Superficial mycosis: skin infections involve only the stratum corneum, hair infections involve only the cuticle; no cellular response, no direct discomfort to patient. Pityriasis versicolor and Tinea nigra for skin as well as piedra for hair
    • Cutaneous mycoses: infection usually restricted to keratinized layers of skin and hair, cellular immune response is generated, referred to as dermatophytoses
  2. Classify dermatophytes based on source (3 categories)
    • Anthropophilic: infect humans only
    • Geophilic: inhabit the soil – infect humans and animals
    • Zoophilic: inhabit animals, but may infect people
  3. Explain the transmission of dermatophytes (3 categories)
    • Anthropophilic fungi: close human contact such as sharing items
    • Geophilic fungi: outbreaks originate from soil, secondary human transmission reported (rare)
    • Zoophilic fungi: animal-to-human contact or indirect via fomites
  4. Define the locations involved with the following “Tinea” – capitis, barbae, corporis, cruris, pedis, manuum, unguium
    • Tinea capitis: hair and scalp
    • - Exothrix - grows on outside of hair shaft
    • -Endothrix - invades hair shaft
    • Tinea barbae: infections of beard area
    • Tinea corporis: infections on the trunk
    • Tinea cruris: infections of inguinal area
    • Tinea pedis: infections of the foot
    • Tinea manuum: infections of the hand
    • Tinea unguium: involvement of the nails
  5. What is Phaeohyphomycosis? How is it treated?
    • Infection caused by dermatiaceous, or black mold (contains melanin in cell wall)
    • Associated with allergic fungal sinusitis, brain abscess, meningitis
    • Treatment: surgical drainage or excision, Amphotericin B for epidural or brain abscesses, itraconazole for sinusitis, voriconazole for meningitis
  6. What is Mycetoma?
    • Type of subcutaneous Mycoses involving both cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue
    • Localized, chronic, noncontageous
    • If disease is caused by filamentous fungi it is known as eumycetoma
    • Develops weeks/months after traumatic injury, tissue becomes indurated, abscesses, draining sinuses, and deep granulomatous lesions develop
    • Best treatment is medicosurgical
    • Ketoconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B for 10 months!
  7. What are the organisms the create a Mycetoma?
    • Acremonium, Curvularia giniculata, Exophila jeanselmei, Madurella, Pseudallescheria boydii
    • also sometimes it is used to describe infections due to Actinomycetes or norcardia