vet-tech-chem-ch-8-acid-and-bases

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darlene.m.nelson
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186147
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vet-tech-chem-ch-8-acid-and-bases
Updated:
2012-11-29 18:49:24
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vet tech chemistry acids bases set
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vet tech chemistry acids and bases set
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  1. Acid - Arrhenius theory
    • a substance that dissolves in water and produces hydrogen ions (H+)
    • all start with H and end in -ide
    • ionizes in water
  2. Acid - Bronsted-Lowry theory
    proton donor
  3. Acidosis
    a physiological condition in which the blood pH is lower than 7.35
  4. Alkalosis
    a physiological condition in which the blood pH is higher than 7.45
  5. Base - Arrhenius theory
    • a substance that dissolves in water and produces hydroxide ions (OH-)
    • metal + hydroxide (OH-)
    • dissociates in water
  6. Base - Bronsted-Lowry theory
    proton acceptors
  7. Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases
    • an acid is a proton donor
    • a base is a proton acceptor
    • water (H2O) can be considered and acid or base in this theory
  8. Buffer
    • a solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base (the salt of the weak acid) or a weak base and its conjugate acid (the salt of the weak base) that maintains the pH by neutralizing an added acid or base
    • resists pH change to a degree
  9. Conjugate acid-base pair
    • an acid and base that differ by one H+
    • when an acid donates a proton, the product is its conjugate base, which is capable of accepting a proton in the reverse reaction
    • the stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base & vice versa
    • 1st the salt of the buffer totally dissociates, 2nd the weak acid/base stays pretty much a molecular substance
    • all group 1 salts (including NH4+) are very soluble
    • all nitrates are very soluble
  10. Hydronium ion
    the ion formed by the attraction of a proton (H+) to a water (H2O) molecule written as H3O+
  11. Ion product constant of water (Kw)
    • the product of [H30+] and [OH-] in solution
    • Kw = [H3O+] * [OH-] = 1 * 10**-14
  12. Neutral
    the term that describes a solution with equal concentration of H3O+ and OH-
  13. Neutralization
    a reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water
  14. pH
    • a measure of the [H3o+] in a solution
    • pH = - log [H3O+]
  15. pKw
    pKw = pH + pOH = 14
  16. pOH
    pOH = - log [OH-]
  17. Reaction of acids & bases
    • acid + metal => salt + hydrogen gas (H2)
    • acid + carbonate (MCO3, where M is a metal) => metal salt + water (H2O) + carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • acid + bicarbonate (MHCO3, where M is a metal) => metal salt + water (H2O) + carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • acid + hydroxide => water (H20) + salt
    • acid + base => water (H2O) + salt
  18. Strong acid
    • an acid that completely ionizes in water
    • properties:
    • - single headed arrow
    • - strong electrolyte
    • - all products and very little reactants at equilibrium
  19. Strong base
    • a base that completely ionizes in water
    • all metal hydroxides are strong bases
  20. Titration
    • the addition of a base to an acid sample to determine the concentration of the acid
    • a neutralization reaction using an indicator to determine when the end point (when acid & base is equal) is reached
  21. Weak acid
    • an acid that is a poor donor of H+ and dissociates only slightly in water
    • properties:
    • - double headed arrow
    • - weak electrolyte
    • - many reactants and very little products at equilibrium
  22. Weak base
    a base that is a poor acceptor of H+ and dissociates only slightly in water

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