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What are the 3 functions of the urinary system?
- Production and storage of urine – the means by which nitrogenous and other wastes are rid from the body
- Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure
- Regulation of RBC production – by means of hormones released from the kidneys
What makes up the urinary system?
- urinary bladder
What are the tissue layers of the kidney (in order from deep to superficial)
(1) the kidneys are retroperitoneal
- (2) surrounded by fibrous or renal capsule on the surface =
- dense irregular connective tissue
- (3) adipose capsule of perinephric (or perirenal) fat
- (4) renal fascia – dense irregular connective tissue
- (5) paranephric (or pararenal) fat between the renal
- fascia and the peritoneum
- (6) on the anterior surface, the paranephric fat contacts
- the parietal peritoneum
What is the path that urine follows to leave the body?
- 1.Urine travels from renal pyramid
- 2. Renal papilla
- 3. Minor calyx
- 4. Major calyx
- 5. Renal pelvis
- 6. Ureter
- 7. Urinary bladder
- 8. Urethra
- 9. Outside of the body
Blood flow through the kidneys
- 1. Abdominal Aorta
- 2. Renal Artery
- 3. Segmented Artery
- 4. Interlobar Arteries starting at renal sinus
- 5. Arcuate Artery
- 6. Interlobar Artery (to microcirculation)
- a. Afferent arteriole
- b. Glomerulus
- c. Efferent arteriole
- d. Peritubular capillaries or Vasa Recta
- 7. Interlobular Vein8. Arcuate Vein9. Interlobar Vein10. Renal Vein
- 11. Inferior Vena Cava
What are the functions of the motor and sensory neurons at the renal plexes?
- Parasympathetic: Vagus nerve: no known function
- Controls diameter of kidney arterioles
- May stimulate hormone release
Basic urinary formation:
- 1. Filtration
- 2. Reabsorption
- 3. Secretion
Explain what filtration means in the kidneys:
- Process by which water, solutes, wastes, ions, and nutrients
- pass from the blood plasma to the capsular space of the renal corpuscle; because of pressure differneces across the filtration membrane
Explain Reabsorption in the kidneys:
Reabsorption in the kidneys is the movement of water, nutrients, and ions (as needed) back into the renul tubules
What is Secretion in the kidneys:
Secretion is the selective on last look at blood, excesses, waste, and (mictorion) (what goes in the toilet basically)
The nephron has 2 major parts:
What are they?
- Tubular components
- Vascular components
What are the tubular components?
- glomerular capsule
- proximal convoluted tubules
- nephron loop
- distal convoluted tubules
What are the Vascular components?
(also known as the microcirculation)
- 1. Interlobular artery2. Afferent arterioles3. Glomerulus4. Efferent arterioles5. Peritubular capillaries or Vasa Recta
What is the difference in Peritubular capillaries and Vasa Recta?
- Peritubular capillaries are associated with convoluted tubulesVasa recta are associated with the nephron loop
What are the two structures that make up the renal corpuscle?
- Glomerular capsule (Bowman capsule) which has 2 layers
- and a space
- 1. visceral layer (inner) that surrounds the glomerulus
- 2. parietal layer (outer) formed from a simple squamous
- 3. capsular space that is between the inner and outer layer
What is the primary site of filtration in the kidney?
- Renal corpuscle
- (where blood tube and pee tubes come together)
Why is there so much pressure in the Renal corpuscle?
- the afferent arteriole is much larger than the efferent arteriole
Why is the renal corpuscle the site of filtration in the kidneys?
- -capillaries are fenestrated in the glomerulus
- -and the spaces between the inner layer and cells of the Bowman's capsule to allow for filtration
- -lot of surface area
Filtrate starts and ends where?
- Starts as it is coming out of the glomerulus
- Ends at the beginning of the collecting ducts
- After that it is called urine
What is the Filtrate flow?
- 1. Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
- 2. Nephron Loop or Loop of Henley made up of first the
- descending limb and then the ascending limb
- 3. Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
- 4. Collecting Duct
- (done with everything except water which can be pulled back in by osmosis)
What is the Filtrate flow after the collecting duct?
- 1. Renal papilla
- 2. Minor calyx
- 3. Major calyx
- 4. Renal pelvis
- 5. Ureter
- 6. Urinary bladder
- 7. Urethra
The efferent arteriole branches to form 2 different capillary beds, what are they?
- 1. Peritubular capillaries
- 2. Vasa Recta
- both are low pressure and porous
- Are responsible the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste materials within the kidney
Where do the peritubular capillaries reside?
Cortex of the kidney
Where do the vasa recta reside?
Medulla of the kidney
What is the blood flow from the the entering of the kidney to the efferent arterioles?
- AortaAbdominal AortaRenal arteriesUp to 5 segmental arteriesInterlobular arteriesAfferent arteriolesRenal corpuscle & forms a capillary network called Glomerulus
- Efferent arterioles (branches into capillary networks)
What is the blood flow from the Efferent arterioles to the inferior vena cava?
- 1. Efferent arterioles
- 2. Capillary beds (Peritubular capillaries & Vasa recta)3. Network of Veins4. Interlobular Veins-travel beside interlobular arteries5. Arcuate Veins6. Interlobular veins-through renal columns to renal sinus7. Renal Vein- formed by interlobular veins merging in renal sinus8. Inferior Vena Cava
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