Goniometry measurement placements

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rosstinachrisgmail.com
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186166
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Goniometry measurement placements
Updated:
2012-11-30 16:30:15
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OCCTH583
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ROM position and MMT position
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  1. Shoulder
    Flexion
    • Position: sitting or supine
    • Axis: inferior to the acromion process
    • Movable arm: parallel to humerus
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the midline fo the trunk
  2. Shoulder Extension
    • Position: Sitting or prone
    • Axis: inferior to the acromion process
    • Movable arm: parallel to humerus
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the midline fo the trunk
  3. Shoulder Abduction
    • Position: Sitting or supine, palm faces up during movement
    • Axis: 1.3cm inferior and lateral to coracoid process (put goniometer on back for girls)
    • Movable arm: Parallel to the long axis of the humerus
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the sternum
  4. Shoulder Horixzontal Abduction
    • Position: 90 degrees of shoulder abduction, elbow flexed at 90 degrees, palm in anatomical position
    • Axis: On the acromion process
    • Movable arm: parallel to humerus
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the trunk
  5. Shoulder Horizontal Adduction
    • Position: 90 degrees of shoulder abduction, elbow flexed at 90 degrees, palm in anatomical position
    • Axis: On the acromion process
    • Movable arm: parallel to humerus
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the trunk
  6. Shoulder Internal rotation
    • Position: Prone, 90 degrees of abduction, elbow flexed at 90 degrees, towel under humerus
    • Axis: olecranon process
    • Movable arm: parallel to the long axis of the ulna
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the trunk
    • note:  MMT is tested in prone
  7. Shoulder External Rotation
    • Position: Supine, 90 degrees of abduction, elbow flexed at 90 degrees, towel under humerus
    • Axis: olecranon process
    • Movable arm: parallel to the long axis of the ulna
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the trunk
    • note:  MMT is tested in prone unless they are prone to shoulder dislocations then test in sitting
  8. MMT Scapular Elevation Positions
    AG: sitting GE: prone
  9. MMT Scapular Depression Positions
    prone
  10. MMT Scapular Protraction/Abduction Positions
    AG: supine GE: sitting
  11. MMT Scapular Retraction Positions
    AG: prone GE: sitting
  12. MMT Shoulder Flexion Positions
    AG: sitting GE:lying on non test side
  13. MMT Shoulder Extension Positions
    AG: sitting GE: lying on non-test side
  14. MMT Shoulder Abduction Positions
    AG: sitting GE: supine
  15. MMT Shoulder Adduction Positions
    AG: N/A GE: supine
  16. MMT Shoulder Horizontal Abduction Positions
    AG: prone GE: sitting
  17. MMT Shoulder Horizontal Adduction Positions
    AG: supine GE: sitting
  18. MMT Shoulder External Rotation Positions
    • AG: prone GE: sitting
    • * for someone with history of shoulder dislocations, put in sitting position
  19. MMT Shoulder Internal Rotation Positions
    AG: prone GE: sitting
  20. Elbow Flexion
    • Position: sitting (or supine with towel under humerus)
    • Axis: Lateral epicondyle of the elbow
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the long axis of the radius
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the long axis of the humerus
  21. Elbow Extension
    • Position: sitting (or supine with towel under humerus)
    • Axis: Lateral epicondyle of the elbow
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the long axis of the radius
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the long axis of the humerus
  22. Elbow Pronation
    • Position: Sitting, elbow flexed to 90, forearm in neutral holding a pencil
    • Axis: head of the third metacarpal
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the pencil
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the floor
  23. Elbow Supination
    • Position: Sitting, elbow flexed to 90, forearm in neutral holding a pencil
    • Axis: head of the third metacarpal
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the pencil
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the floor
  24. MMT Elbow Flexion Positions
    AG: sitting GE: shoulder at 90 degrees of abduction
  25. MMT Elbow Extension Positions
    AG: Prone, shoulder at 90 degrees of abduction  GE: Shoulder at 90 of abduction
  26. MMT Elbow Pronation Positions
    AG: sitting, elbow at 90 degrees flexion GE: shoulder at 90 degrees of flexion, elbow at 90 degrees of flexion
  27. MMT Elbow Supination Position
    AG: sitting, elbow at 90 degrees flexion GE: shoulder at 90 degrees of flexion, elbow at 90 degrees of flexion
  28. Wrist Flexion
    • Position: sitting, forearm on table pronated (?)
    • Axis: lateral to ulnar styloid process
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the long axis of the fifth metacarpal
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the long axis of the ulna
  29. Wrist Extension
    • Position: sitting, forearm on table pronated
    • Axis: lateral to ulnar styloid process
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the long axis of the fifth metacarpal
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the long axis of the ulna
  30. Wrist Ulnar Deviation
    • Position: sitting, forearm on table pronated
    • Axis: dorsal aspect of wrist over capitate bone
    • Moveable arm: Parallel to the long axis of the third metacarpal
    • Stationary arm: Midline of the forearm
    • *note: no MMT in lab manual
  31. Wrist Radial Deviation
    • Position: sitting, forearm on table pronated
    • Axis: dorsal aspect of wrist over capitate bone
    • Moveable arm: Parallel to the long axis of the third metacarpal
    • Stationary arm: Midline of the forearm
    • *note: no MMT in lab manual
  32. MMT Wrist Flexion Positions
    AG: sitting, forearm on table supinated GE: sitting, forearm on table, wrist extended
  33. MMT Wrist Extension Positions
    AG: sitting, forearm on table pronated GE: sitting, forearm on table, wrist slightly flexed
  34. MCP Flexion
    • Position: sitting, forearm resting on table, wrist slightly extended
    • Axis: dorsal aspect of MCP joint being measured
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the proximal phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to long axis of metacarpal
  35. MCP Extension
    • Position: sitting, forearm resting on table, wrist slightly flexed
    • Axis: volar aspect of MCP joint being measured
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the proximal phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to long axis of metacarpal
  36. MCP Abduction/Adduction
    • Position: hand resting on table
    • Axis: dorsal aspect of MCP joint being measured
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the proximal phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the long axis of the metacarpal
  37. DIP Flexion/Extension
    • Position: sitting, forearm resting on table in neutral, wrist and fingers extended
    • Axis: over joint being measured (dorsal surface for flexion, volar for extension)
    • Moveable arm: parallel to long axis of phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to long axis of phalanx
  38. MMT Hand DIP/PIP Flexion Position
    Forearm supinated on table
  39. MMT Hand 5th MP Flexion Position
    Forearm supinated on table
  40. MMT Finger Abduction Position
    • Hand resting on table in pronated position
    • * note forearm supinated for 5th digit abduction to see abductor digiti minimi
  41. MMT Finger Adduction Position
    Hand resting on table in pronated position
  42. MMT Hand MP Extension Positions
    AG: forearm on table in pronation, MP and IP joints flexed GE: forearm in neutral, fingers flexed
  43. MMT Hand IP Extension Position
    Forearm supinated on table, MP joints extended, IP joints flexed, put pressure against finger nails
  44. Thumb CM Flexion/Extension
    • Position: sitting, elbow flexed, forearm
    • in midposition and resting on table wrist
    • in slight ulnar deviation, thumb maintains contact with metacarpal and proximal phalanx of index finger
    • Axis: volar surface over CM joint
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the thumb metacarpal
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the long axis of the radius
  45. Thumb MCP and IP Flexion/Extension
    • Position: sitting, elbow flexed,
    • forearm resting on table in midposition, wrist and fingers extended
    • Axis: lateral over the joint being measured
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the phalanx
  46. Thumb Abduction
    *can also use a tape measure
    • Position: sitting, forearm in middle position resting on table, thumb adducted
    • Axis: at the junction of the bases of the first and second metacarpals
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the first (thumb) metacarpal
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the second metacarpal
  47. Thumb Opposition
    Use a tape measure to measure tip to tip
  48. MMT Thumb Extension Position
    Forearm in midposition, slight wrist flexion, MP and IP flexion
  49. MMT Thumb Flexion Position
    Forearm supinated on table, MP and IP joints extended
  50. MMT Thumb Abduction Position
    Forearm supinated, thumb adducted
  51. MMT Thumb Adduction Position
    Forearm pronated, MP and IP joints extended
  52. MMT Opposition Thumb Position
    Forearm supinated wrist in neutral, thumb adducted and extended
  53. Hip Flexion
    • Positon: supine, knee flexed through movement
    • Axis: lateral over the greater trochanter
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the femur
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the midline of the trunk
  54. Hip Extension
    • Position: prone, strapped down over pelvis, feet off plinth (knee doesn't flex during movement)
    • Axis: lateral over the greater trochanter
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the femur
    • Stationary arm: parallel to the midline of the trunk
  55. Hip Adduction
    • Position: supine, non test leg on chair to side
    • Axis: ASIS
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the femur
    • Stationary arm: along line between two ASIS
  56. Hip Abduction
    • Position: supine
    • Axis: ASIS
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the femur
    • Stationary arm: along line between two ASIS
  57. Hip Internal/External Rotation
    • Position: sitting, hip flexed to 90, towel under knee
    • Axis: mid point of the patella
    • Moveable arm: parallel to tibia
    • Stationary arm: perpendicular to the floor
    • *hint watch the way the femur rotates
  58. MMT Hip Flexion Positions
    AG: sitting GE: side lying on non-test side
  59. MMT Hip Extension Positions
    AG: prone GE: side lying non-test side
  60. MMT Hip Abduction Positions
    AG: side lying non-test GE: supine
  61. MMT Hip Adduction Position
    AG: N/A GE: supine with resistance
  62. Knee Flexion/Extension
    • Position: supine, towel under thigh
    • Axis: lateral epicondyle of femur
    • Moveable arm: parallel to fibula
    • Stationary arm: parallel to femur
  63. Ankle Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
    • Position: sitting foot supported in neutral, towel under knee
    • Axis: inferior to lateral malleolus
    • Moveable arm: parallel to fifth metatarsal
    • Stationary arm: parallel to fibula
  64. Foot Inversion/Eversion
    • Position: supine, towel under knee
    • Axis: board method - place board along bottom of foot, draw neutral line, invert or evert then draw another line.  Measure the small angle. 
  65. Great Toe MTP Flexion/Extension
    • Position: sitting, foot supported
    • Axis: dorsum of first metatarsal
    • Moveable arm: parallel to proximal phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to first metatarsal
  66. Great Toe IP Flexion/Extension
    • Position: sitting, foot supported
    • Axis: dorsum of IP
    • Moveable arm: parallel to distal phalanx
    • Stationary arm: parallel to proximal phalanx
  67. Toes MP Flexion/Extension
    • Position: sitting, foot supported
    • Axis: dorsum over joint being measured
    • Moveable arm: parallel to the proximal phalanx of joint being measured
    • Stationary arm: parallel to metatarsal
  68. MMT Knee Flexion Positions
    AG: prone GE: side lying on non-test side
  69. MMT Knee Extension Positions
    AG: sitting GE: side-lying non test side
  70. MMT Ankle Plantar Flexion Positions
    AG: prone GE: side lying test side

    Note: add inversion to movement to focus on tib anterior and posterior
  71. MMT Ankle Dorsiflexion Positions
    AG: sitting GE: side lying test side
  72. MMT Foot Eversion Positions
    AG: side lying on non-test side GE: supine, heel over plinth
  73. MMT Foot and Toes Grading and Position
    Done in gravity eliminated, apply resistance to determine 4 and 5. 
  74. Neck Flexion/Extension
    • OB Goniometer - in sitting, place dial on side of head
    • Tape measure - measure distance between tip of chin to suprasternal notch
  75. Neck Lateral Flexion
    • OB goniometer - in sitting, place dial on forehead
    • Tape measure - measure from mastoid process to acromion process
  76. Neck Rotation
    OB goniometer - strap across top of head and around, put dial on top of head
  77. Trunk Flexion - Thoracolumbar Spine
    • OB Goniometer: Place strap 10cm above S2, dial on lateral side. 
    • Tape Measure: Mark S2 and C7, measure between.  Measure distance when person bends forward from S2 to C7, subtract the difference.
  78. Trunk Flexion - Lumbar Spine
    Mark 10cm above S2, measure distance between S2 and mark in flexion.  Subtract 10cm. 
  79. Trunk Extension
    • Position: standing with OB, prone with tape measure
    • OB: place strap 10cm above S2, place dial on the side
    • Tape Measure: Strap client over pelvis to plinth, with hands positioned at shoulder level.  Extend trunk, measure distance from suprasternal notch to plinth. 
  80. Trunk Lateral Flexion
    • Position: Standing
    • OB: Place strap 10cm above S2, dial on the front of body
    • Tape Measure: Measure the distance from tip of D3 to floor
  81. Trunk Rotation
    Arms folded across chest, strap around, OB goniometer on top
  82. MMT Trunk Flexion (position and muscle grading)
    • Supine, pillow under head, do not stabilize feet
    • 1- flicker
    • 2- tilt of pelvis, head and scapula off plinth
    • 3- sit up with arms at sides (controlled)
    • 4- sit up with arms folded across chest
    • 5-sit up with hand at ears
  83. MMT Trunk Extension (position and muscle grading)
    • Prone, strapped down at pelvis, stabilize above ankle
    • 1- flicker
    • 2- sternum off plinth
    • 3- arms at sides lift xiphoid process off plinth
    • 4- arms folded across back, xiphoid process off plinth
    • 5- arms at side of head, xiphoid process off plinth
  84. MMT Trunk Rotation (position and muscle grading)
    • Sitting then prone
    • 1- flicker
    • 2- able to rotate to either side
    • 3- half curl up with arms at sides
    • 4- half curl up with arms folded across chest
    • 5- half curl up with hands by ears
    • **note if the person is curling up to the right, place one hand on right side above hip, and other hand on left side below ribs
  85. MMT Cervical Region
    DONT DO IT!

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